9.11: Ocean Resources - Geosciences

9.11: Ocean Resources - Geosciences

Living Resources

The ocean provides important living and nonliving resources. Some species of fish are being over-harvested, which means their rate of reproduction cannot keep up with the rate at which people consume them. Bottom trawling is a method of fishing that involves towing a weighted net across the seafloor to harvest fish. Some provide us with medications.NONLIVING


Oil and natural gas are the most valuable non-living resources taken from the ocean. Extracting these resources requires drilling into the seafloor. Oil platforms have dozens of oil wells that are drilled in places where the ocean is sometimes 2,000 m deep. A description of the Deepwater Horizon oil spill affecting the Gulf of Mexico is located in the Human Actions and Earth’s Waters chapter.The seafloor has some valuable minerals. Manganese nodules containing manganese, iron, copper, nickel, phosphate, and cobalt may be as small as a pea or as large as a basketball. Estimates are that there may be as much as 500 billion tons of nodules on the seafloor. The minerals in manganese nodules have many uses in the industrial world, but currently they are not being mined. Think back to the discussion of ore deposits in the Earth’s Minerals chapter. Why do you think these seafloor resources are not being mined?

9/11: Images from New York that shocked the world

For many people across the world the terror attacks of 9/11 played out live on television screens.

The images were both painful and shocking and despite the passing of time they remain powerful.

This is how the BBC's correspondent James Robbins described the day on the Ten Oɼlock News 10 years ago.

His report shows the distressing moment when the second tower was struck by a plane and then collapsed.

The Deep Ocean Education Project is a collaboration among NOAA Ocean Exploration, Ocean Exploration Trust, and Schmidt Ocean Institute featuring high-quality ocean exploration and science education materials from the three organizations. The Deep Ocean Education Project website – launched in 2021 – is built around themes that are easily searchable, address key ocean-related phenomena, and encourage and support three-dimensional approaches to teaching and learning for K-12 education. The objective is to provide a one-stop resource hub for public, educators, and students looking for deep-sea educational materials. The website also includes information on how to connect with our research vessels, including a list of upcoming events and opportunities, and live feeds of expeditions.

Created in cooperation with the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation under federal award NA19OAR0110405

Transforming our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development Annex A/69/L.85 (United Nations 2015)

Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 104, 1737–1738 (2007).

Lubchenco, J. Science 279, 491–497 (1998).

Griggs, D. et al. Nature 495, 305–307 (2013).

Millennium Ecosystem Assessment Ecosystems and Human Well-being (World Resources Institute, 2005).

Wood, S. L. & DeClerck, F. Front. Ecol. Environ. 13, 123–123 (2015).

Liu, J. et al. Science 347, 1258832 (2015).

Guerry, A. D. et al. Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA 112, 7348–7355 (2015).

Lu, Y., Nakicenovic, N., Visbeck, M. & Stevance, A.-S. Nature 520, 432–433 (2015).

Review of the Sustainble Development Goals: The Science Perspective (International Council for Science, Paris, 2015).

Stokes, D. E. Pasteur's Quadrant – Basic Science and Technological Innovation (Brookings Inst. Press, 1997).

Lubchenco, J. et al. Ecology 72, 371–412 (1991).

National Research Council Increasing Capacity for Stewardship of Oceans and Coasts: A Priority for the 21st Century (National Academies Press, 2007).

Barner, A. et al. Oceanography 25, 252–263 (2015).

Teh, L. C. L. & Sumaila, U. R. Fish Fish. 14, 77–88 (2013).

Hidden Harvest: The Global Contribution of Capture Fisheries (World Bank, 2012).

The ocean provides humans with many resources and is an important source of food, transport, and energy. New ocean resources, including gas hydrates and energy harvesting from wind and waves, are of particular significance, and it is important to develop rational and economical approaches to safely explore them. New knowledge and technologies in the field of ocean resource exploitation and mechanical properties of marine sediment are urgently needed. Analytical, numerical, and experimental papers, as well as review submissions related to a wide range of ocean resource exploration activities, are warmly invited. A rapid peer review process will be provided to all papers. Please check the keywords for some suggestions of topics of interest.

Prof. Dr. Masayuki Hyodo
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Journal of Marine Science and Engineering is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Dependent upon the student's advisory committee with a minimum of 36 credit hours of which 18 hours must be in a "major" of two specializations. The specializations are geography, geology & geophysics, metereology and oceanography. A minimum of 6 hours of supporting courses must be from areas other than the two specializations of the "major" and are not restricted to the college of geosciences. The use of 690 (Theory of Research), 691 (Research) and 695 (Frontiers in Research) is not allowed. The degree plan is to be submitted prior to the start of the third semester. A thesis in not required.

9 hours of advanced undergraduate (300-400 level) are allowed. A maximum of 12 credits of transfer courses, or Texas A&M System extension courses, or 489 and/or 689 (special topics) or a combination thereof may be considered thereof may be considered for the degree plan.

24th National Ocean Sciences Bowl Finals: Regional Winners Announced!

Congratulations to all of the teams
who won!

21 teams from each of the regional competitions will be moving on to the 2021 NOSB Finals Competition.

Blue Crab Bowl – Chesapeake Bay Governor’s School for Marine and …


I will be leaving the University of Delaware College of Earth, Ocean and Environment (CEOE) at the end of this month to take a position at the University of California, Davis. It has been both rewarding and gratifying to lead CEOE over the last four years. I have built on the foundation laid by my predecessors and hope that my service has helped to reenergize the college and position it for tremendous future growth. As the Earth continues to warm at an alarming rate, I have high hopes that the foundation established through the launch of the Gerard J. Mangone Climate Change Science and Policy Hub will position CEOE and UD to become a global leader in providing real solutions to the climate crisis and Earth’s other grand challenges.

As I reflect on my time at UD, I am excited about the future of CEOE and am confident that its best days are yet to come. I would like to express my gratitude to President Assanis, Provost Morgan and my fellow deans for this tremendous career growth opportunity. Thank you, too, to my leadership team, faculty, staff, students and the Dean’s Advisory Council for their support in working with me to execute my vision for the college. I hope I have helped make CEOE and UD a better place. I hope to continue to be a resource for the next dean, as well as the students, faculty, and staff that make up this wonderful community.

9.11: Ocean Resources - Geosciences

Session Resources include videos, animations, and simulations that are intended to be used with the curriculum. HTML5 versions of the animations were made possible through funding from the National Marine Sanctuary Foundation, award #16-06-B-00071 Providing More Experience resources are described in the right hand pages of the curriculum and offer excellent supplemental information to support your students' learning.

Session Resources

Session 2.1: Finding Out About Carbon

We recommend using Safari or Firefox as the internet browser to download any video files - Google Chrome may not allow you to download these files. We also recommend that you use QuickTime as your video player.

Session 2.2: Tracking Carbon through Respiration

Session 2.3: Tracking Carbon through Photosynthesis, Part 1

Session 2.4: Tracking Carbon through Photosynthesis, Part 2

We recommend using Safari or Firefox as the internet browser to download any video files - Google Chrome may not allow you to download these files. We also recommend that you use QuickTime as your video player.

Session 2.5: Investigating Carbon in the Ocean

Session 2.6: Detecting Decaying and Buried Bodies

We recommend using Safari or Firefox as the internet browser to download any video files - Google Chrome may not allow you to download these files. We also recommend that you use QuickTime as your video player.

Session 2.7: Investigating Combustion and the Carbon Cycle

Session 2.8: Crunching the Numbers for the Carbon Cycle

We recommend using Safari or Firefox as the internet browser to download any video files - Google Chrome may not allow you to download these files. We also recommend that you use QuickTime as your video player.

Session 2.9: Connecting Carbon Flow Changes and the Ocean

    . Learners investigate what ocean acidification is, what causes it, and how it affects marine organisms, through a series of hands-on activities, discussions, and short exploration of text.This activity is designed for the general public, and is best accessed by learners in middle school or older. It is best done with small groups.

Resources marked with a "**" are found on the site PBS LearningMedia, which provides educators with strategies, tools, and professional development resources needed to fully utilize digital learning. These are resources that may be freely accessed through their site, although the site requires that you log in after accessing the site a few times. Logging into the site is free, and allows you to search for a wide variety of educational media.

Videos from the NPR site will need to be accessed through their site. Instructions for locating these videos are listed next to their titles below.

All other resources, which are listed in the curriculum's Introduction Book, are also listed at the bottom of this page. We have found these books, DVDs, and websites to be beneficial for additional information on the topics covered in the curriculum.

Back to the top

Resources Listed in the Introduction Book

Books for Students

  • The Way Life Works: The Science Lover's Illustrated Guide to How Life Grows, Develops, Reproduces, and Gets Along

Author: Mahlon Hoagland and Bert Dodson

Publisher: Three Rivers Press (November 17, 1998)

This incredibly visual book explores several life processes including respiration, photosynthesis and fermentation with clever metaphors and comprehensive explanations.

Publisher: DK CHILDREN (April 11, 2005)

In Eyewitness style, this book looks at our planet Earth. It covers topics such as the history of Earth's atmosphere and oceans, modern oceanography and the formation of Earth's geographical features.

Publisher: Capstone Press 1st edition (January 1, 2007)

Winner of the 2008 Teachers Choice Award for Childrens Books - Learning Magazine, September 2007

Publisher: Heinemann-Raintree (October 31, 2005)

Books for Educators

Publisher: Prentice Hall (2003)

How did the universe become a place that could harbor life? New clues from the frontiers of science are presented by astrophysicist Dr. Neil deGrasse Tyson. With creative graphics, watch how early Earth formed, the creation of the moon, our atmosphere and first life. Purchase, or find it streaming at Search for Origins: How Life Began.

Websites for Students

If you are a fan of Brainpop, there are numerous short clips on many of the concepts introduced in Unit 2.

Use video clips, interactive content pages and quizzes to look at the process of photosynthesis.

The Carbon Cycle Greenhouse Gases Group (CCGG) monitor levels of carbon dioxide and show the information of global trends with interactive models.

National Geographic has created a large, interactive, student-friendly website with many engaging articles and images.

A great interactive website explaining how the ocean is becoming more acidic. The website also includes a simulated lab experience using real data measuring the affects of pH on sea urchin larvae.

Produced by NRDC, this is a great 21-minute film made to raise awareness about the largely unknown problem of ocean acidification, which poses a fundamental challenge to life in the seas and the health of the entire planet.

Created by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, this site is a small part of the information presented on the ocean and climate. It provides access to video clips, curricula, activities, and further resources.

This playful animation, fun music and pleasant voiceover are engaging and entertaining. The science is handled well.

Websites for Educators

NSTA's Science Objects are two-hour on-line interactive inquiry-based content modules that help teachers better understand the science content they teach. This Science Object is the second of three Science Objects in the Flow of Matter and Energy in Ecosystems SciPack. It explores how the cycling of carbon and other nutrients from non-living to living components and back is one of the most important of ecosystem functions and is representative of the cycling of other elements.

This game-format resource provides students the opportunity to investigate the cycling of carbon through various reservoirs while illustrating the complexity of biogeochemical cycles and conservation of matter.

This website presents issues related to the ocean and climate, such as CO2 emissions, polar melt, ocean currents, and ocean acidification. It also provides a forum for related comments and articles.

An excellent sources of updated information, articles, images, and maps.

A free website for educators, allowing users to access and download resources.

Elementary resources: Earth science

4th - 12th grade
Students learn how climate change impacts the ocean through activities that help them understand ocean acidification, melting ice caps, and thermal expansion of water.

Ducks in the flow offsite link

3rd - 5th grade &bull Teacher guide &bull Links to standards
Students use scientific inquiry and data gathering skills to learn about force, motion, and ocean currents using the true story of toys that fell off a ship during a storm and drifted to various places.

Elementary GLOBE

K - 4th grade &bull Teacher guide
Students learn about Earth systems through science-based fictional story books and accompanying lesson plans. The seven books in this series cover air quality, climate, clouds, Earth system, seasons, soil, and water.

Exploring changes in ocean chemistry

4th - 5th grade &bull Uses data &bull Links to standards
Students test different water samples, analyze their results, and share their ideas about how to improve the experimental design.

Help Nemo find his home! offsite link

3rd - 8th grade &bull Teacher guide &bull Links to standards
Students learn about how ocean acidification affects the olfactory senses of clownfish.

Hydrography: Mapping the ocean floor with a sounding box

2nd - 4th grade &bull Links to standards
Students are introduced to hydrography, make their own sounding box, and map the &ldquoocean floor&rdquo of another group's sounding box.

Marine debris monitoring toolkit for educators

4th - 8th grade &bull Teacher guide &bull Uses data
Students conduct local marine debris surveys and enter their data into a national database, becoming stewards of their communities.

The methane circus

5th - 6th grade &bull Links to standards
Students learn about the role methane hydrates played in animal evolution during the Cambrian Explosion, 541 million years ago. Students also learn how methane hydrates may contribute to climate change.

Mysteries in the ocean

3rd - 5th grade
Students learn about ocean floor features and how scientists explore and map these underwater landscapes.

Severe weather awareness week: Sun Protection - Sun Shades and Severe Weather vs. Normal Weather lessons

K - 1st grade &bull Teacher guide &bull Links to standards
Students learn about severe weather and severe weather preparedness in this collection of lesson plans.

What's the story with sand? offsite link

4th - 6th grade &bull Teacher guide &bull Links to standards
Students learn how sand forms, how to recognize different types, and how to tell sand apart from soil and other small particles.

Winged ambassadors offsite link

5th - 12th grade &bull Teacher guide &bull Uses data &bull Links to standards
In this collection of five lessons, students learn about albatrosses, their migration patterns, and how they are impacted by marine debris.

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