Modelbuilder - make service area layer

Modelbuilder - make service area layer

I made a model in the model builder (ArcGis) to make a service area layer (see figure).

Now I want to run this tool for the same locations but for different hours. -> the results would be a feature class for the location of the service areas at 6.00h, the next output would be another feature class for the location of the service areas at 7.00h and so on… (from 6.00 AM until 22.00PM)

How can I change the time of day automatically and the name of each output file?

Like mentioned in the first answer/ comment

I add the tool 'iterate field values' at my model in the csv file are the different time periods in the format: 6:00:00 7:00:00 and so on…

Now, it's the problem that i don't understand how i can link the value to the tool 'make service area layer' in the field 'Time of Day (optional)

Maptitude for Precinct and Election Management

The NYC Board of Elections was in a bind. They had just a few weeks left to redraw their 5,000 precincts. Three days after they selected Maptitude P&E, we were on-site training their staff. In just five days they had nearly completed the project!

It goes without saying that the NYC BOE is extremely pleased with Caliper Corporation's software and support. Of course, they have only scratched the surface of what they can accomplish with Maptitude P&E. In addition to reprecincting, they are now using Maptitude P&E to create precinct map books, metes and bounds reports, street index files and reports, precinct splits, and unique ballot styles for each election. They are able to geocode and map voters, count voters and party registrants for each precinct, precinct split, and ballot style, add new streets, edit geographic boundaries (e.g., city annexations) and much more.

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The New York City Board of Elections uses Maptitude P&E in its central office as well as in New York's five boroughs. Perhaps their most significant accomplishment to date has been eliminating the annual $1 million map production cost. Not only were the numerous election district maps expensive to produce, but by the time they were ready they were either out-of-date or it was too late in the election cycle for them to be of much value. Today, using Maptitude, the NYC BOE is able to redraw their election districts in a matter of days and create both PDF maps for their web site and in-house printed maps. To see some of their Maptitude-created maps, visit their web site, Each map displays the election districts in a particular assembly district.

Orange County California Registrar of Voters

The Orange County (California) Registrar of Voters office has embraced Maptitude for Precinct and Election Management (Maptitude P&E) and given it a key role in their preparation for the 2004 general election and future elections. Using the special tools found in the software, they created geographic layers for precincts, portions (precinct splits), ballot styles, voting precincts, polling sites, language assistance, and voting precinct clusters for polling site coordinators. Click here to read the complete case study.

Johnson County Elections Office

The Johnson County (KS) Elections Office is using Maptitude P&E in a big way, with many additional plans for the near future. Here's a list of their current activities.

Internal mapping for daily system use:

  • Countywide and individual city maps of ward and precinct areas.
  • District maps of Senate, Representative and County Commissioners areas featuring photographs of elected officials attached to respective areas.
  • School district maps detailing precinct areas.
  • Drainage district maps detailing precinct areas.

Election oriented mapping:

  • Set-up area maps for locating polling places.
  • Field supervisor maps defining areas of technical support on election day.
  • Drop-off area maps for return of results on election night.
  • Countywide drop-off site map detailing polling places and associated results drop-off locations.
  • Countywide polling place map for detailing locations available and used for any given election.
  • Countywide election results by precinct presented on web site.
  • Driving directions and area road maps to satellite voting locations for advance voting.

Integration of Maptitude data:

  • Verification of polling place locations geocoded in Maptitude by address to information stored in Election Systems Management software used to maintain and conduct elections.
  • Attaching spatial data (longitude and latitude) to registered voters for maintenance functions in Election Systems Management software. Other spatial data attached to a voter's record may associate district location and other election oriented items such as elected officials. This information becomes vital to assessing whether a voter whose geocode falls on or near a district boundary would be issued a ballot containing any particular race for which a voter has choice.

Delivery and market scope.

  • Availability of maps online to staff via office intranet.
  • Presentation of election related information on the internet.
  • Maps for resale to public.
  • Voter information package.

Caliper created a census block geographic layer based on the geographically-accurate county GIS map base. The elections office can use the redistricting tools in Maptitude P&E to aggregate the blocks to create precincts, county council, school, congressional, state legislative, and other district layers. The end result will be that all relevant layers will overlay perfectly, enabling Maptitude P&E to perform its "magic" of creating street index files, precinct splits, ballot styles, metes and bounds reports, etc. Caliper will aggregate the blocks to create a census tract layer and attach the census data to the block and tract layers, enabling the elections office to create maps showing detailed census data. Caliper is also working with to create an interface between their VR software, which is used by Johnson County Elections, and Maptitude P&E.

Alaska Division of Elections

The Alaska Division of Elections had a lot of 200 mile-long problems. They needed to create new precinct boundaries for the entire state and wanted to use the Census Bureau’s TIGER geography as the base. The only problem was that some of their census blocks were over 200 miles long, spanning the entire length of bays and canals (and more than a few glaciers)! In addition to needing to chop up these huge blocks into pieces that followed the desired precinct lines, they also wanted to add new segments to the underlying line layer that Maptitude P&E uses to automatically create the metes and bounds report and street index file.

The solution was to use the multi-layer geographic editing tools in Maptitude P&E. First, they added new segments to the line layer where they wanted new precinct boundaries. Then they selected the appropriate segments and had Maptitude P&E split the blocks into pieces with boundaries that perfectly followed these segments. The central office in Juneau performed the work and transmitted the results to the four district offices.

El Paso County Elections

Caliper is working as a subcontractor to Diebold Election Systems to implement Maptitude P&E at the El Paso County Elections office. There are two main thrusts to the effort. The first is to move all of the precinct and district boundaries from the Census TIGER maps to the more-accurate county GIS map base. The second is to integrate Maptitude P&E with the Diebold election software and the voter registration software.

In El Paso, precinct boundaries are defined by street segments, railroads, water features, municipal boundaries, and invisible features. We obtained Shapefiles for streets, railroads, water features, and municipal boundaries from the county's Road and Bridge Department. We overlayed these layers to create a single line layer, in Maptitude format, of line pieces. For example, where a railroad segment crossed a street segment, we split both segments in two at the point of intersection. We then used Maptitude P&E's geographic editing tools to add the invisible features to the line layer, such as the Franklin Mountains ridge line.

Next, we used the multi-layer geographic editing tools in Maptitude P&E to select the lines that defined each precinct and started building the precinct polygons.

Once the precinct layer is complete, El Paso will use the redistricting tools in Maptitude P&E to aggregate precincts into congressional, state legislative, and other district layers. They will define school districts from split precincts. The end result will be that all relevant layers will overlay perfectly, enabling Maptitude P&E to perform its "magic" of creating street index files, precinct splits, ballot styles, metes and bounds reports, etc.

Maryland State Archives and State Board of Elections

Caliper Corporation has developed an interactive-mapping application for the Maryland State Archives and the State Board of Elections. The web-based application makes it easy for Maryland residents to access information about their representatives to the Maryland General Assembly and to the U.S. Congress. It is designed to show the precinct the voter is in as well as the polling place. This is just one of the many ways that you can deploy our software to improve the election process and qualify for HAVA funding.

Rose Institute at Claremont McKenna College

The Rose Institute at Claremont McKenna College conducts and publishes research primarily on California government and politics. Using computer technology, students and faculty in the Rose Institute advance knowledge about politics and help create services that make the political process more democratic. Through the development of large computerized databases and advanced geographic retrieval systems, students become involved in projects focusing on such topics as redistricting, fiscal analysis, demographics, survey research, and legislative regulatory analysis. (You can learn more about the Rose Institute at

The Rose Institute uses Maptitude, Maptitude for Redistricting, Maptitude for Precinct and Election Management, and Political Maptitude. Here is what the Rose Institute has to say about Caliper Corporation in its 2005 report, "Restoring the Competitive Edge: California's Need for Redistricting Reform and the Likely Impact of Proposition 77":

"Their longstanding and generous support makes possible all of the Rose Institute's demographic, redistricting, and geographic information systems (GIS) research. Their outstanding, powerful and easy-to-use Maptitude software enables us to train our students up from GIS novices to expert users in only a few hours, and the software's extensive analytic capabilities provide the service and power needed for our work."

Modelbuilder - make service area layer - Geographic Information Systems

The GM300 was Motorola's next step in the MaxTrac / Radius mobile product lines. The schematics are remarkably similar. You can even interchange some boards between the GM300 and MaxTrac radios. Like the MaxTrac, the GM300 line has been discontinued by the manufacturer. Throughout this article, reference to MaxTrac radios implies Radius radios as well.

Naturally, you need different programming software (RSS), but if you've ever programmed a MaxTrac, you'll be right at home with the GM300. The radios operate the same, too. See below for more info on the RSS and programming.

GM300 mobile radios cover the VHF (136-174 MHz in two ranges) and UHF (403-520 MHz in four ranges) bands, with 8 or 16 channels, 12.5 or 20/25/30 kHz channel spacing, and 10, 25, and 35-45 watt power levels. They use the same accessories (loudspeakers, microphones, accessory plugs, power cords, mounting brackets, etc.) as the MaxTracs.

The M120 radio is just about the same as a GM300 but has "less features" - this would be the 2-channel version, equivalent to a MaxTrac 50. There is also an M10 single-channel radio, and an M130 2-channel radio that is an M120 with the GM300's signaling capabilities.

The 16ch GM300 radio uses the expanded logic board with firmware in an EPROM that gives you the ability to program several of the accessory jack pins and also gives you several signaling systems, such as MDC1200. The 8ch GM300 and the M-series all use the masked logic board that has no programmable pins. The masked logic board also has limited code plug space, hence fewer channels and less capabilities.

Here's a front view photo of a 16-channel MaxTrac, a 16-channel GM300, and a 2-channel MaxTrac:

GM300 Model Numbers:

The first six characters are pretty much standard Motorola convention. The IF frequency is usually 45.1 MHz but if you have multiple radios near each other, this can cause interference, so you can optionally order the radio with an alternate IF frequency.

MountPower WattsBand MHzSeriesI.F. MHz
M: dash0: 1-103: 136-174GM: ?C: 45.1
3: 10-254: 403-520XQ: ?R: 45.3
4: 25-45 XV: ?

The XV-series seems to all be 1 channel radios. The XQ-series seems to be all 2 channel radios. The GM-series can be 2, 8, or 16 channel radios. The XV and XQ may be used by the M10, M120, and M130 radios.

The second six characters provide a lot of useful information about the capabilities of the radio and the boards contained within it.

Spacing kHz# Ch.Logic BoardRange MHzRev.
0: 12.50: 8C: Expanded1: 136-162A_
2: 20/25/309: 16D: Masked1: 403-430
2: 146-174
3: 438-470
4: 465-490
5: 490-520

A typical model number would be M44GMC09C3A_. This is a 40 watt, UHF radio, 45.1 MHz IF, narrow spacing (12.5 kHz), 16 channels, expanded logic board, 438-470 MHz band.

It is rare that the model number includes the specific frequency range the radio is capable of handling (10th character). You don't get that lucky with MaxTracs, Spectras, etc. I wish all the model numbering was so useful. It is NOT practical to change the frequency range for which the radio was manufactured. The RF board and PA assembly are frequency-dependent the logic board and front panel are not. As the model number tells you which range the radio is, if you end up with the wrong one (assuming the radio hasn't been thrown together out of spare parts or had modules swapped) it's your own fault for not doing your homework.

The expanded logic board has its firmware contained in a socketed EPROM, which can be replaced. The masked logic board has its firmware permanently stored in the soldered-in microprocessor IC. People have apparently modified the RSS to get 16 channels from masked logic board radios and 40 channels from expanded logic board radios.

It would appear that GM300s are not capable of any form of trunking operation. However they can do G-Star signaling for use with GE radio systems.

There are other models, such as M10, that are often called GM300. This article is specifically oriented towards the radios with "GMC" in the model number.

Click on the image to enlarge it.

Note that a revision to the service manual shows two VHF ranges: 136-162 MHz and 146-174 MHz. Also, the power levels are continuously variable throughout the three ranges: 1-10, 10-25, 25-45 watts.

This list is sorted alphabetically by Function, then Description.

Board #FunctionDescription
HLN8075ADisplay Board
HLN8070ALogic BoardExpanded, 4-layer
HLN8070DLogic BoardExpanded, 4-layer
HLN8074ALogic BoardMasked, 2-layer
HLN8074ELogic BoardMasked, 2-layer
HLE8385AUHF Power Amp403-433 MHz, 01-10 Watts
HLE8275AUHF Power Amp403-433 MHz, 25-45 Watts
HLE8267AUHF Power Amp438-470 MHz, 01-10 Watts
HLE8034AUHF Power Amp438-470 MHz, 10-25 Watts
HLE8271AUHF Power Amp438-470 MHz, 25-40 Watts
HLE8284AUHF Power Amp465-495 MHz, 25-40 Watts
HLE8269AUHF Power Amp490-520 MHz, 25-35 Watts
HLE8229AUHF RF Board403-433 MHz, 25 kHz
HLE8230AUHF RF Board403-433 MHz, 12.5 kHz
HLE8301AUHF RF Board438-470 MHz, 12.5 kHz
HLE8300AUHF RF Board438-470 MHz, 25 kHz
HLE8264AUHF RF Board465-490 MHz, 12.5 kHz
HLE8263AUHF RF Board465-490 MHz, 25 kHz
HLE8228AUHF RF Board490-520 MHz, 12.5 kHz
HLE8227AUHF RF Board490-520 MHz, 25 kHz
HLD8293AVHF Power Amp136-162 MHz, 10-25 Watts
HLD8299AVHF Power Amp146-174 MHz, 01-10 Watts
HLD8033AVHF Power Amp146-174 MHz, 10-25 Watts
HLD8287AVHF Power Amp146-174 MHz, 25-45 Watts
HLD8266AVHF RF Board136-162 MHz, 12.5 kHz
HLD8265AVHF RF Board136-162 MHz, 25 kHz
HLD8029AVHF RF Board146-174 MHz, 12.5 kHz
HLD8031AVHF RF Board146-174 MHz, 25 kHz
HLN8071AVol/Mic Board

Logic Board Jumpers:

Click on any image to enlarge it.

The documentation page above lists the jumpers as JUnnn. For some reason these are shown on the board layouts as either Pnnn or JUnnn. They're the same thing. There may or may not be silk-screened legend on the boards it depends on the revision level.

There are two quite different logic boards used with the GM300. One (the expanded logic board) has a shield over the microprocessor components, its program is stored in a socketed EPROM, and the board has four layers, while the other (the masked logic board) has all the components exposed, its program is stored within the microprocessor, and the board only has two layers. The image below shows the location of the jumpers on the two-layer (masked) board:

The image below shows the location of the jumpers on the four-layer (expanded) board.

These jumpers are quite visible on the photo of the expanded GM300 logic board below. Note that some of them are also present on MaxTracs and have the same functions.

Accessory Connector:

Click on the image to enlarge it.

Note that the 8-channel radio signals are slightly different than the 16-channel radio signals. That may be due to the masked vs. expanded logic board. Fortunately, you can use an accessory plug wired for a MaxTrac (7-9, 15-16) in a GM300.

Click on the image to enlarge it.

The accessory connector and pins are also well documented in the MaxTrac section.

Note that many accessory pins on the expanded (four-layer) logic board are programmable, whereas you're stuck with the pin assignments on the masked (two-layer) logic board and these can't be modified.

The 16-channel expanded logic board radios support "channel steering" through the accessory connector. You need to program the general-purpose I/O pins (6, 8, 9, 12, and 14) for "Channel Select". They turn into a binary coded input that allows you to select any of the possible 16 channels by grounding the appropriate input lines (assuming you've programmed the radio for active-low inputs). To select channel 1, ground the "Channel Select 1" line. Channels 1, 2, 4, 8, or 16 may be selected by grounding select line 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 respectively. All other channels are selected by grounding multiple select lines. If you release all of these lines, the radio reverts to the channel selected by the front panel. If you select a channel that does not exist (i.e. 10 channels programmed and you select channel 16), the radio reverts to the channel selected by the front panel. Channel steering DOES work as expected on radios with more than 16 channels, i.e. you can select anything up to channel 31, as that's all that's possible with five select lines. This article tells you how to use channel steering.

Pins 4, 8, 12, 14 can be configured for COR. Pins 6, 8, 9, 12, 14 can be configured for Channel Select. So you can put COR on pin 4 and CS on the others. The fact that the masked (8-channel) radios and most MaxTrac users selected pin 8 for PL&COR Detect is something that will have to be changed if you want multiple features activated. It's up to the user to choose the desired functionality given the number (six) of programmable I/O lines.

The Motorola Radius programming software also supports Channel Steering if you have Version 21.01 firmware in the radio and a 16-pin logic board. Unfortunately, the MaxTrac software does NOT offer this feature, so if you have a MaxTrac and you want channel steering, you have to install the Version 21.01 firmware, then blank and initialize the radio with RADMBL software, turning it into a Radius model, just so you can program the accessory connector to handle channel steering. Also, the Radius software only provides for three Channel Select input lines, not five like the GM300. This means you can only select channels 1 through 7 plus whatever the front panel has selected, regardless of how many channels the radio might be programmed with.

The HVN8177 programming software (RSS) programs the M10, M120, M130, and GM300 mobiles, as well as the GR300, GR400, and GR500 desktop repeaters. The latest release is HVN8177F version R05.00.00 dated December 1995. The RSS is shipped on 3.5-inch diskettes and is a DOS-only program.

The microphone connector is exactly the same as on a MaxTrac, and it's also well-documented in the MaxTrac section. The programming cable and RIB setup is the same as what you'd use for a MaxTrac or GTX.

You can hex-edit the MDF file in the RSS to allow an 8-channel radio to take 16 channels. Additional information is available at Colin Lowe's web site.

The GM300 with the expanded logic board supports the same common signaling modes as a MaxTrac (PL, DPL, MDC, etc.).

Ignition Control or Ignition Sense:

Like the MaxTrac, the GM300 radios also have optional Ignition Control or Ignition Sense via the Accessory connector. This 12V (nominal) signal runs through a fuse (F801) on the logic board. Its location depends on whether you have a masked logic board or an enhanced logic board. If you don't want this feature you will need to install a new fuse, a solid wire jumper, or a 1-10 ohm 1/4w resistor in its place. For either board, the fuse/jumper is located near the Accessory connector and is outlined with a yellow box in the photos below.

This fuse supplies 12V to the Ignition Control pin of the Accessory connector. If 12V is present on that pin, the radio will turn on via the front-panel power switch. If this fuse is blown or removed, you must supply your own 12V to the Ignition Control pin of the Accessory connector to get the radio to turn on. To enable external Ignition Control you need to blow or remove F801 and supply your own (possibly switched) 12V supply to that pin on the Accessory connector. Nothing in any software package will disable Ignition Control. It's all done in hardware. You MUST open the radio and bypass or replace the fuse to disable Ignition Control or supply a source of 12V to the Ignition Control pin.

The photo below shows the location of the fuse/jumper you need to cut/remove to enable Ignition Control on a Masked Logic Board or replace/bypass to disable Ignition Control.

The photo below shows the location of the fuse/jumper you need to cut/remove to enable Ignition Control on an Enhanced Logic Board or replace/bypass to disable Ignition Control.

Differences from a MaxTrac:

The GM300 has models that fully cover the 144-148 MHz and 440-450 MHz amateur bands. Some MaxTracs will go that low if you adjust the VCO and hex-edit the RSS.

The GM300 RF boards have a local/distant attenuator in the receiver front end. This reduces the gain of the receiver and improves intermod rejection by 10dB. You can put a GM300 RF board into a MaxTrac, but there will be no control of the local/DX circuit, and the radio will have poor sensitivity. The circuit can be activated by soldering a small jumper on the RF board. The GM300 RSS and logic boards know how to control this circuitry the MaxTrac RSS and logic boards do not.

The GM300 control head is quite similar to the MaxTrac. There is an additional circuit board, soldered to the logic board pins, that the control head connectors plug into, that provides some RF filtering and Zener diodes to protect from excessive voltage. The control head connectors are wired differently from those on MaxTrac/Radius radios. Also, the internal speaker now connects through the control head cables, rather than on its own two-wire cable. This makes it easier to remote-mount a GM300. There are kits available for this purpose.

For comparison, here's the inside view of a MaxTrac. Notice the lack of shielding and no filter board between the logic board and control head.

The GM300 logic board is significantly different from the MaxTrac logic board. It can control the RF board's local/DX circuit. The audio power amplifier is one single IC rather than discrete transistors. The heat-sink is considerably different and mounts only to the bottom of the chassis - no more T8 flat-head screws through the side of the chassis. There are far fewer components on the board too. All GM300 logic boards have a 16-pin accessory connector. A full metal shield covers the entire logic board, just like they have for the RF board the MaxTrac only shields the microprocessor area. This further reduces spurious emissions.

The GM300 audio amplifier drives both sides of the loudspeaker. Therefore you must NOT ground either pin 1 or pin 16 of the accessory connector. You must run two wires to an external speaker. The same circuit design and components are used on the Spectra radios and they suffer from the same restriction. Grounding either speaker lead may let out the chip's lifetime supply of smoke, even though the manufacturer claims the ICs are short-circuit-proof.

The internal loudspeaker for the GM300 (and MaxTrac/Radius) radios is p/n 5080085D03, however this part number has been replaced by p/n 5004639J01. This is a 22 ohm, 5 watt speaker that retails for around $7US in early 2009. An alternate speaker, with integral mounting flanges, is p/n 5080496Z01. All of these are No Longer Available through Motorola, but can be found on popular auction sites.

The GM300 RF power amplifier has a thermistor mounted near the final transistor, so it actually senses the heat-sink temperature. The logic board uses this to control the output power in a more reasonable way the power will be reduced if/when the power amplifier gets hot enough, not when the microprocessor "thinks" it's getting hot from extended use. This makes GM300 radios more suitable for repeater transmitter usage. (They still need adequate forced-air cooling.) This extra signal requires a 6-wire cable and connector between the PA and the logic board (the MaxTracs only have a 5-wire cable and connector). I have heard that you can use a GM300 PA in a MaxTrac by snipping the temperature sensor wire off the connector, but I personally would not butcher either the radio or the cable that way.

There doesn't seem to be a lab version of RSS for the GM300. You can fool RSS into thinking the radio is blank by manually erasing the serial number (filling it with spaces) and entering a few more bytes using the bit-banging facility available in the MaxTrac lab RSS program. After that, you should be able to initialize the radio using the GM300 RSS or write a previously saved code plug to the radio. Initialization is exactly the same as the steps you'd do for a MaxTrac: set the radio model number, frequency range, signaling features, panel number, serial number, key in the crystal data and 9.6V reading, and align the power amplifier and deviation circuits.

Note: people have used the MaxTrac lab RSS to blank GM300 radios. They then install a MaxTrac EPROM, make some changes to the logic board, and turn the radio into a MaxTrac, including the model number. Then they initialize it with MaxTrac RSS.

To blank the radio, you need to deposit the following data at the locations shown. These values came directly from a factory-fresh blank board. This data will go directly into the radio's memory. You may want to write down the contents of these locations first, incase something goes terribly wrong. Use this at your own risk. All values are hexadecimal.

B60020Serial #
B60120Serial #
B60220Serial #
B60320Serial #
B60420Serial #
B60520Serial #
B60620Serial #
B60720Serial #
B60820Serial #
B60920Serial #
B60AFFPanel #
B60BFFModel Index #
B60C1BProduct #

After setting the memory to these values, the radio will appear blanked to the GM300 RSS, and you'll have to go through the blank board replacement procedure and either align the radio, or fill in the various fields with data that was previously there. You can also write any previously saved code plug to the radio, but make sure you use one that matches the band and number of modes.

During the first screen of the initialization procedure, you'll need to select the frequency range. Go through the entire list using the up-arrow, then go through it a second time to find the exact range. Once the correct range is chosen, you'll have no problem choosing a model number. If you don't see the expected range, go through the entire list again.

By the way, the RSS knows about two "panel numbers" for these radios: 005 for the multi-digit (8/16 channel) radios, and 004 for the other (1/2 channel) radios, and it covers the Radius GM300, M10, M120, and M130 models.

The value at location B60C is an entry number of the Product Series in the MDF file. There are only four possible values and you must select a value for this location. The value at location B60F seems to depend on which logic board is in the radio. There's a checksum at location B611 but don't bother with it. The table below shows the values that can go into these two locations, based on the logic board, maximum number of channels, and the 9th character of the model number. All values are hexadecimal.

Product SeriesLogic Board#Ch 9th charB60CB60F
Radius GM300Expanded16 C1B4F
Radius GM300Masked8 D1B45
Radius M120Masked2 D20TBD
Radius M10Masked1 D21TBD
Radius M130Expanded2 C29TBD

You should always record the original values or make a backup when hex-editing any radio or file.

For some reason, GM300s seem to be prone to losing receive sensitivity. Whether this is due to nearby excessive transmitter power or operator error, the eventual cause seems to be either shorted protection diodes across the receiver's input, or a dead first RF amplifier transistor. All of these components require removal of the RF board to access them, but replacement is quite easy. They're surface-mount, of course.

While not a problem, I encountered a VHF radio with a receiver that was a couple kHz off frequency. In addition, it had very distorted audio when I fed a 3 kHz deviated signal into it. The 2nd oscillator crystal frequency was a couple of kHz high too. Replacing the crystal got the receiver back on frequency but the audio distortion was eventually traced to the fact that this was a 12.5 kHz narrow-band receiver and would only accept a 2.5 kHz deviated signal. I had never encountered one like this before and it was completely useless for 5 kHz reception, which is the standard on VHF.

Another common issue is a dead 2nd oscillator crystal. This operates at 44.645 MHz and is used to convert the 45.1 MHz intermediate frequency signal down to 455 kHz for the detector. When the crystal dies, the receiver will hear absolutely nothing or it may only hear a really strong signal, like a portable transmitting two inches from the antenna jack. If you have a receiver capable of hearing the crystal frequency, you can pick it up if you remove the shield from the RF board and place the antenna within a few inches of the left side of the radio. If you don't hear the 44.645 MHz signal, the crystal needs to be replaced. These can often be found on a popular auction web site. The Motorola p/n is 48-80008K02 and the crystals are marked "44.645/08K02" so you know they're the right ones. The most recent crystal I replaced is marked "44.645 08W05 NDK'9520" but I'm not sure how that differs from the "K02" crystal. In September 2019, Motorola claims the current part number for the 08K02 is 48-80606B02.

These radios often go way off frequency, to the point that the warp adjustment will not get it back where it belongs. The cause is most often dirty interconnection pins inside the radio. These are between the RF board and the logic board. On the MaxTrac, they are attached to the logic board on the GM300 the strip of pins is mounted on the chassis and both boards plug into it. Remove both boards, clean these pins, and reinstall the boards. While the radio is apart, clean the front panel connectors too. These same connectors get dirty on MaxTracs as well, but for some reason they don't often cause serious problems like they do on the GM300. See this article for details and photographs.

I discovered that the RX Audio output on the accessory jack pin 11, with JU551 in the de-emphasized/muted position (B) has negative peak clipping (distortion) present on a 5 kHz deviated signal with a 300-400 Hz modulating tone. This may also be present on the MIC jack pin 8. It is caused by too much gain in the final audio stage ahead of the volume control. Two 16-channel radios had this problem I don't know if all GM300s (and their related models) do. I fixed this by soldering a 22k resistor from pin 1 to pin 2 of U553B to reduce the gain by about 50%. The radio now exhibits no clipping with deviations as high as 7 kHz.

Reference Oscillator Coarse Adjustment Procedure:

Rather than type this paragraph, here it is directly from the service manual. This same procedure (with different part references) could also be used with MaxTrac radios.

  • GM300 8-channel Operator's Card, 6880902Z26
  • GM300 16-channel Operator's Card, 6880902Z41
  • GM300 Owner's Manual, 6880902Z09
  • GM300 Service Manual, 6880902Z32
  • GM300 RSS, HVN8177F
  • GM300 RSS Manual, 6880902Z36

Acknowledgements and Credits:

Dave N1OFJ supplied the GM300 and MaxTrac 50 radios. These photos were taken at his shack.

All photographs were taken, and are copyright, by the author.

Much of the information for this article, and the scanned pages, were obtained from the official Motorola GM300 Service Manual.

A few tidbits of information were gathered from Internet sources.

GM300, MaxTrac, Radius, RSS, PL, DPL, MDC, and probably a bunch of other things, are trademarks of Motorola, Inc.

Contact Information:

The author can be contacted at: his-callsign [ at ] comcast [ dot ] net.

This article first posted 28-Sep-2006.

This web page, this web site, the information presented in and on its pages and in these modifications and conversions is © Copyrighted 1995 and (date of last update) by Kevin Custer W3KKC and multiple originating authors. All Rights Reserved, including that of paper and web publication elsewhere.

2. Materials Research

2.1. Study Site

A mountainous district in the northwest of Son La province (3/4 is high mountain—Figure 1), Thuan Chau is located along National Highway 6, has a natural area of 154,126 ha and is inhabited by several ethnic minorities (Thai: 74.05% H’Mong: 11.16% Kinh: 9.32% Khang: 2.57% and other ethnic groups: 2.94%). According to the Statistical Yearbook of Viet Nam 2016 on the website of General Statistics Office, Vietnam, Son La's population in 2016 was around 1,259,026, whereas 153,000 people living in Thuan Chau (study site) are affected by flooding [17] .

Figure 1. (a) Position of Thuan Chau district and (b) digital elevation model (DEM).

Thuan Chau’s terrain is elevated, sloping and clearly divided: the highest point over sea level is the Copia peak (1817 m) and the lowest point is Song Da (200 m). In the rainy season, Thuan Chau suffers a lot of natural disasters, such as landslides or flash floods. Over the past few years, for many reasons (including climate change and deforestation), flash floods have started to grow in terms of intensity and frequency, causing severe damage to local communities. As such, research on the development of an early-warning system for flash floods at district level has become an imperative, urgent and practical requirement. With this system, information alerts can be transmitted to different people in various ways, such as message boards, SMS and web pages or can be converted to traditional warning signals (speakers, gongs). Accordingly, local people and managers can make appropriate decisions to prevent natural disasters.

In river basins, to develop a map of flash-flood and mud-flood risks, factors such as landslide, maximum rainfall, the cumulative value of surface topography, surface characteristics, soil characteristics, the weathered shell of the surface and the average slope of tributaries are included as the input data for the analytical model, constructed with a detailed level of research [12] [18] .

2.2. The Theoretical Model in Flash Flood Warning

The general principle of the model is that flash floods will only occur in locations with high potential risks and when rainfall exceeds the flood level. This concept is illustrated in Figure 2.

Figure 2. (a) Model of information processing and integration, (b) Workflow of the processing server for early flash flood warning.

As such, in order to obtain an early warning of flash-flood risks, work needs to be done, including: (1) the development of a map of potential flash-flood risks (2) the development of the model on flash-flood warnings (3) the development of an iMETOS automatic meteorological station system. These stations should have a 10–15 km active radius, be directly connected to the global meteorological network ( and receive any information about meteorological conditions in the past 30 days, the current weather and weather forecasts for 1–6 days for the station location. It is a dedicated climate station system with many new features [6] [16] approved by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment to construct under the Law on Meteorology and Hydrology 2016 [19] (4) the development of online WebGIS software operating in an internet environment to quickly process rainfall forecasts and integrate them into the potential flash flood risks. Where rainfall exceeds the threshold level, it is possible to quickly identify and provide timely information on the expected time of flash-flood generation and the locations where flash floods can occur in varying degrees.


Agencies with long-term planning horizons are in a unique situation. They have the potential to assess and quantify some their mitigation needs early, and for multiple sites, which can lead to more biologically effective and cheaper mitigation solutions. A major challenge is successful identification of projected aggregate environmental impacts (Lawrence 2007), which could permit mitigation plans acceptable to regulatory agencies (Brown 2006 Hardy 2007). We showed that a GIS database approach could summarize road construction impacts to 55 landcover types and 177 listed plant and animal species, and that the results can be reported for different eight spatial representations of California.

The database developed for this study was intended to provide state transportation planners and transportation agency biologists with a simple tool for forecasting their cumulative mitigation needs. Once the data were integrated in the GIS, a database was developed that allowed the cross-querying of the biological resources, programmed projects, and spatial domains. The result was a capacity to estimate the mitigation obligations for programmed projects in any combination of the watershed and administrative units in the database. This multiscale framework permits spatially flexible summations of results between the 967 programmed projects, depending on the questions being asked. For example, an environmental impact biologist could use the database to preview what species might be encountered before heading out to the field for a survey of a project site, while an environmental planner could use it to assess the overall magnitude of mitigation obligations for habitat impacts in a watershed, transportation planning district, or highway (Fig. 1). This type of multiscale forecasting capacity will make it easier to justify the acquisition of projected impacted habitat types for mitigation at an early phase of the planning process, when acquisition of the property is more logistically and fiscally feasible. In some cases early acquisition may be the only option, because waiting could lead to no habitat remaining available for acquisition.

Caltrans’ long planning horizon provided an opportunity for an aggregate impact forecast. We were able to quantify the footprints of funded highway projects and assess their habitat- and species-level impacts. From a regional planning perspective, these results represent a first step or contribution to an overall accounting, which could eventually also include other development impacts to the same habitat types. This was one of the advantages of using a defined set of spatial domains for the database architecture defined spatial domains permit easy incorporation of other impacts in any given planning unit into an overall analysis. This approach can help mitigation planning to better contribute to the broader goal of systematic conservation planning (Mattson and Angermeier 2007 Margules and Pressey 2000).

Measures of other impacts that could be incorporated include landscape fragmentation indexes such as effective mesh size (Jaeger 2000 Moser and others 2007 Girvetz and others 2008), which could provide further context on the level of habitat degradation in various planning units. Additionally, spatially explicit models of expected urban growth (Johnston and others 2003 Thorne and others 2006a Landis 1995), its attendant transportation requirements, and its associated water quality impacts could be added to the framework. However, since the location of future urban growth is less centrally planned than that of road infrastructure, urban growth would need to use a model-based approach, such as the rule-based and geographical urban growth simulation modeling program UPlan (Johnston and others 2003). Expected shifts in dominant vegetation under climate change (Lenihan and others 2003) could potentially also be integrated, although model spatial scale output is coarse, and there are multiple futures scenarios. These types of information (future urban growth and climate change impacts) could be used both to assess the possibility that a site will impacted by multiple effects (including roads) and to assess the long-term viability of proposed mitigation sites.

In terms of biological resources, there are a number of other types of information that could be included in this database structure. Regional conservation plans and/or wildlife connectivity models that identify target areas for preservation could be incorporated (e.g., Penrod and others 2000 Thorne and others 2006b Shilling and others 2002 Noss and others 1999), so that transportation and other planners could know when a watershed they are working in has additional value for conservation or terrestrial connectivity. Detailed maps of species richness or hotspots are another measure of conservation importance (Myers and others 2000) that could be integrated. Air quality and stream condition data could also be incorporated, where mapped assessments are available.

The cumulative ecological impacts at a given road construction site may extend beyond the direct impacts described here. Additional impacts could include the compounding effects of multiple disturbances on processes such as species dispersal (Forman and Alexander 1998), hydrologic systems (Risser 1988), and water quality (Coats and Miller 1981). Furthermore, mitigation is not always successful (e.g., Sudol and Ambrose 2002), and may require monitoring to determine long-term success (Hierl and others 2008). However, our approach permitted quantification of some direct impacts on a per-site basis and the capacity to sum those across sites. This capacity is an advance toward the goal of a comprehensive regional assessment capability. The framework presented here identifies methods by which other assessments of cumulative impacts could be incorporated.

Besides addressing only direct impacts, another limitation of this study was the detail inherent in the landcover map used. This map (California Department of Forestry and Fire Protection 2002) identifies the dominant landcover at a 1-ha (100 × 100-m) resolution. The landcover map’s habitat classification system works well for identifying California habitat types used by vertebrates. However, the map’s scale means that some fine-scale, biologically important landscape elements, particularly small wetlands such as vernal pools and freshwater emergent wetlands, are missed. Therefore, these results should be treated as an approximation of expected impacts, and on-the-ground surveys are likely to identify additional impact acreage, especially for spatially restricted habitat types. Site-level surveys will likely also result in somewhat different area estimates for the widespread vegetation types reported here, but we anticipate lower result discrepancies for those types.

We developed an expandable database framework as a first step for assessing environmental impacts for transportation project mitigation forecasting in California. As such, it represents a static summary of aggregate habitat impacts. Additional work will make it possible to update the spatial database, and user modifications may eventually be possible. Such modifications could permit the incorporation of new data at a central database location, but with the new projects being loaded and queried remotely from various agency offices, as is being done in Florida with the Efficient Transportation Decision Making web site (Florida Department of Transportation 2008). In this manner, the database could be used to prescreen potential road construction projects at their earliest preprogrammed phase, leading to avoidance, the best mitigation practice of all.

This project demonstrated a technique for quantifying aggregate habitat impacts in a manner accessible to resource managers and planners. The open database structure permits easy updating as new data become available. The database framework can be adapted to address a wider range of potential impacts and a fuller accounting of natural resources as those become available, and could prove useful in other regional impact assessment and planning efforts.


After applying the method described above to the geotagged Flickr photograph data set of Inner London from 2013 to 2015, the UAOIs were extracted for the 36 monthly slices. The spatiotemporal characteristics of the results are presented in this section.

We begin from a purely spatial perspective, “compressing” the temporal dimension. This approach allowed us to gain an idea of the stability of different parts of the city in being identified as UAOIs. Figure 5 presents each UAOI together in a single map. Figure 5a is produced by overlaying all UAOIs from different time sequences with a large degree of transparency to show the spatial distribution of the more stable UAOIs. Areas in darker pink are thus consistently identified as being of interest during the 3-year period, including: Trafalgar Square, St. Pancras International and tube station, King’s Cross, Jubilee Gardens, Westminster Pier, Borough Market, Millennium Bridge, Tower Bridge, the Canary Wharf financial centre, and the museums located on Museum Lane. These represent popular tourist attractions, cultural venues, business centres and locations with intense traffic.

a All urban areas of interest extracted in inner London from 2013 to 2015 showing the most stable and popular spatial zones and b the overall spatial distribution of the total area of the urban areas of interest in each middle-layer super output area

Figure 5b is generated by aggregating the results of our analysis at the administrative boundary level, i.e. the middle-layer super output area (MSOA). MSOAs are designed to improve the reporting of small area (neighbourhood) statistics and are built from a hierarchy of output areas (OAs Office for National Statistics 2018). These areas are intermediate in size between output areas and local authorities. Our intention with Fig. 5b was to transfer the extent to which a given part of the city belongs to a UAOI into a fixed geography that can be analysed over time. The map displays the total area identified as a UAOI in each MSOA over the entire period considered. The map effectively represents those small-scale areas that are more popular, shifting the attention from the organically evolving shapes of UAOIs to the more stable boundaries of MSOAs. The overall pattern displayed is similar to that in Fig. 5a, showing higher values in the northwest of Newham, the border of Tower Hamlets and Greenwich, the City of London and the middle of Westminster borough, implying a higher degree of attention in these districts.

Although by the nature of the analysis and the source of data employed, it is very hard to carry out a formal validation of the results, the patterns displayed in Fig. 5a, b are well aligned with established knowledge from the literature. Both maps result from the interaction between the urban built environment and human behaviour and highlight popular areas generally covering business centres, public entertainment (theatre, Art Centre and Sports Centre) and food markets, as well as open spaces. They also illustrate that people are more likely to take photographs in those regions where most of the significant landmarks and unique buildings are located. A good example is the City of London, which contains a historical centre with historical buildings as well as modern skyscrapers, and serves as a central business district. We can also see that the districts on the border of Tower Hamlets and Hackney are not always identified as part of a UAOI, which suggests that the degree of popularity of these districts is influenced by different factors and may vary seasonally.

The temporal nature of UAOIs is explored in Fig. 6, which shows how their extent changes during a single year (i.e. 2013). We can see that some UAOIs emerged and disappear suddenly in the span of 1 or 2 months, which indicates that there is a high probability that large-scale but temporary events took place in these areas. For example, the UAOI extracted in the north of Camden existed only in January and February and then disappeared during the following months. This is likely caused by the first snowfall in London in January 2013, as Hampstead Heath is known as a good place for people to enjoy snow by sledging, activities that are usually recorded in photographs. This event was reported in multiple media (Emms 2013 Pettitt 2013).

The spatiotemporal evolution of urban areas of interest in 2013

Although useful, it is difficult to scale the spatiotemporal variation in Fig. 6. Every additional month involves a full map, and comparing a large number of maps at the same time carries a large cognitive load. To be able to extend the analysis and consider the entire period of 3 years at a fine temporal resolution, we created area profiles for stable geographical entities. We designed this approach to avoid directly examining and comparing the shape of each UAOI over time, as it is difficult and unintuitive to track and follow change with such an approach. Because of their organic and rapidly evolving nature, their shape and extent may vary significantly over time. This makes consistent temporal analysis complicated if the original shapes are to be used. For this reason, we returned to the MSOAs. Area profiles are a series of time plots that display, for every MSOA, the percentage of the area that is considered part of a UAOI in a given month. These figures are able to intuitively summarise the degree of participation of a given MSOA in UAOIs, as well as their evolution over the period considered, jointly capturing space and time in a single figure. To put this profile into context, the time plot is complemented with a map that shows the location of the area considered.

Figure 7 shows the UAOI profiles of three MSOAs with distinct characteristics throughout the 3 years from January 2013 to December 2015. These spatiotemporal profiles can thus help stakeholders better understand the dynamic characteristics of these districts when, for example, allocating resources more effectively, or enhance their understanding of the seasonal interest in specific geographic areas of the city.

Spatiotemporal profiles for urban areas of interest based on middle-layer super output layer geographic areas

The first profile corresponds to an area in Westminster. The profile clearly shows a seasonal evolution, oscillating around 15–20%, with higher percentages in warmer months (June, July and August), and lower participation in UAOIs in colder months. In addition, there are also three outliers corresponding to February 2013, and January and February 2015, which display a larger share of the area being part of a UAOI. In particular, the 2015 outliers reach the full extent of the MSOA. It is hard to tell why these occurred, and an in-depth exploration of each of these warrants further research (e.g. semantic analysis or image recognition), which is beyond the scope of this paper. However, what they help to highlight is the ability of the profile to make these patterns explicit and alert the analyst about their existence in a way that traditional maps do not. The ability is even clearer if we consider the profile of the area in Tower Hamlets. In this case, the seasonal variation is more pronounced, moving from about 20% to the entire coverage of the MSOA. These spikes are not necessarily outliers, as they occur in each of the 3 years considered during the warmer months. The only one that could be considered an anomaly is that of March 2014, which took place at a time outside the summer period. Equally, the MSOA was not part of any UAOI during November and December of 2015 which, compared to the previous years, was expected. Again, these patterns warrant further research to explore the drivers behind them, but the role of the profile in highlighting them is clear. Finally, the third panel in Fig. 7 shows a different type of area. The Newham example displays several months in which the area is not part of any UAOI. However, the spring and summer months see it consistently having around a third of its extension within an identified UAOI. This pattern implies that the popularity of this district is significantly influenced by season and its role in the overall hierarchy is less prominent than that of the other two areas considered here.

How does TCP/IP work?

The protocols of the TCP/IP model have a significant advantage: They operate independently of the hardware and the underlying software. The protocols are standardized to work in any context, no matter which operating system you use or which device you use to communicate over the network.

The protocols comprise layers 3 and 4 of the OSI model. The transport and link layer are directly responsible for connecting two devices in a network. For example, the IP address and the Internet Protocol are used to send the data packet to the correct recipient. TCP, on the other hand, is responsible for establishing a connection between the two devices and maintaining the connection for data transmission. If the data packet transmission is unsuccessful, the protocol will attempt to resend the packets.

The SSL protocol is implemented as a transparent wrapper around the HTTP protocol. In terms of the OSI model, it's a bit of a grey area. It is usually implemented in the application layer, but strictly speaking is in the session layer.

  1. Physical layer (network cable / wifi)
  2. Data link layer (ethernet)
  3. Network layer (IPv4)
  4. Transport layer (TCP)
  5. Session layer (SSL)
  6. Presentation layer (none in this case)
  7. Application layer (HTTP)

Notice that SSL sits between HTTP and TCP.

If you want to see it in action, grab Wireshark and browse a site via HTTP, then another via HTTPS. You'll see that you can read the requests and responses on the HTTP version as plain text, but not the HTTPS ones. You'll also be able to see the layers that the packet is split into, from the data link layer upwards.

Update: It has been pointed out (see comments) that the OSI model is an over-generalisation and does not fit very well here. This is true. However, the use of this model is to demonstrate that SSL sits "somewhere" in between TCP and HTTP. It is not strictly accurate, and is a vague abstraction of reality.

With HTTPS, encryption occurs between the Web browser and the Web server. Firebug runs on the browser itself, so it sees the cleartext data encryption takes place when exiting the browser.

Use a network monitor tool (such as Microsoft Network Monitor or Wireshark) to observe the encrypted traffic. Use a Man-in-the-Middle attack product like Fiddler to get a taste of what an attacker can do (namely: intercepting the connection and recovering the data is feasible IF the user can be persuaded to "ignore the friggin' browser warnings" about untrusted certificates -- so don't ignore the warnings !).

HTTPS is HTTP over TLS (or over SSL, which is the name of previous versions of TLS).

SSL/TLS, when configured properly, provides privacy and data integrity between two communicating applications (see TLS specification), over a reliable transport, typically TCP.

Although TCP sockets are not mentioned in the TLS specification, SSL and TLS were designed with the objective of providing a model that could be used almost like plain TCP sockets by application programmers. Besides a few edge cases (for example, for closing sockets or if you want your application you application to be aware of re-negotiations), this is indeed mostly the case. SSL/TLS stacks often provide wrappers that make the SSL/TLS sockets be programmable in the same way as plain TCP sockets (once configured) for example Java's SSLSocket extends Socket .

Most applications rely on existing libraries to use SSL/TLS (for example JSSE in Java, SChannel, OpenSSL, Mozilla's NSS library, OSX's CFNetwork, . ). With little modifications to the plain TCP code (usually, everything around certificate and trust management, and encryption/cipher suites settings if required), SSL/TCP sockets (or streams, depending on the type of API) are used to exchange plain text as far as the application is concerned. It's the underlying library that tends to do the encryption work, transparently.

Presentation Transcript

Web-Based Planning Tools for MissouriShow-Me Ag ClassicFebruary 1, 2006Columbia, MO Chris Barnett Center for Agricultural, Resource and Environmental Systems (CARES) 130 Mumford Hall University of Missouri – Columbia [email protected]

Objectives • Understand the basic concepts of Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and Internet mapping • Become familiar with the resources available in the CARES Map Room • Learn about web mapping applications beyond basic interactive mapping Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

GIS and Internet Mapping • A Geographic Information System (GIS) is “a computer-based system for capture, storage, retrieval, analysis and display of spatial (locationally-defined) data." (The National Science Foundation) • Internet Mapping is a web-based application allowing access to GIS data and tools using a web browser. • GIS data are • Organized into “layers”, or groupings of data of a common type (i.e. soils, roads, fire hydrants). • Typically include spatial (map) and tabular (text) data • Spatially referenced, allowing maps to overlay • Often require GIS-based software Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room 1) CARES web site: Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room 2) CARES Map Room Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room 3) Step 1 – Set the map area. Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room 4) Step 2 - Select the data layers. Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room 5) Step 3 – Make the map. Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room 6) The map! Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room Check your browser! Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map Room Make sure it says YES! Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map RoomViewer Layout Toolbar Locator Map Table of Contents Map Display • Toolbar:Controls for interacting with the map • Locator Map: Displays location within the state, provides quick pan functionality • Map Display: Data layer viewing and interaction area • Table of Contents: Shows the legend, controls for individual layers, and worksheets providing additional functionality Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map RoomOverview Map and Table of Contents Locator Map: Can quickly zoom to a new location by clicking on the map. The map display will refresh centered on the location clicked. Table of Contents Legend: Describes the content of the map display. Also will indicate if a layer is not visible at the current scale. Table of Contents Layers: Provides control of the layer display and determines which layer is active for interaction. Table of Contents Worksheet: Many tools will display a worksheet. Worksheets can allow for user input, live interactive update, and directions for operation. Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map RoomTools and Menus Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map RoomTools and Menus Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Map RoomTools and Menus Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Missouri AFO Site Evaluation Report • Information and education tool • Provides boundary specific information • Learn potential impact of production • Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Sample AFO Site Evaluation Report Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

Sample AFO Site Evaluation Report (Map Page) Web-Based Planning Tools for Missouri, February 1, 2006

By service provider

Service provider Locations Type
AARNet Oceania
Layer 2 and 3
Advanced Wireless Network Asia
Kuala Lumpur
Layer 2 and 3
Airtel Asia
Layer 2 and 3
Ascenty South America
São Paulo
Layer 2 and 3
Bell Canada North America
Layer 3
AT&T North America
San Jose


North America
Los Angeles
New York
San Jose


North America
Los Angeles
New York
San Jose

South America
São Paulo


North America

North America
Los Angeles
San Jose



North America
Las Vegas
Los Angeles
New York
San Jose

North America
Los Angeles
New York
Salt Lake City
San Jose

North America


North America

South America
São Paulo

North America
San Jose


North America
Los Angeles
New York
San Jose


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