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What projection to use with Mapbox base/reference layers?

What projection to use with Mapbox base/reference layers?


excuse me if this has been asked before, but I can not find answer after heavy googling.

What coordinate system/projection does shapefiles need to be in to be alligned correctly with mapbox reference layers?

This page states that the only projection supported is web mercator. However, when I project my shapefile to web mercator in ArcMap, the shapefile is displayed over Africa? Am I simply missing false easting and northing values?

Anyway, HERE are examples of alignments with two different projections.

As displayed above I've convert my shapefiles into different projections, without managing to align them with the reference layer. Help please?


You do not need to re-project your shapefile in Arc Map (Tilemill will do it). Instead, when you add your layer in Tilemill you have to select Custom for SRS and enter the complete datum of your shapefile.


What projection to use with Mapbox base/reference layers? - Geographic Information Systems

Use deck.gl layers as custom Mapbox layers, enabling seamless interleaving of Mapbox and deck.gl layers.

Advantages and Limitations

  • Mapbox and deck.gl layers can be freely "interleaved", enabling a number of layer mixing effects, such as drawing behind map labels, z-occlusion between deck.gl 3D objects and Mapbox buildings, etc.
  • Mapbox and deck.gl will share a single canvas and WebGL context, saving system resources.
  • deck.gl's multi-view system cannot be used.
  • Unless used with react-map-gl, WebGL2 based deck.gl features, such as attribute transitions and GPU accelerated aggregation layers cannot be used.
  • Mapbox 2.0's terrain feature is currently not supported.

Include the Standalone Bundle

To create a Mapbox-compatible deck.gl layer:

To add the layer to Mapbox:

Injecting Layers into Mapbox

In this cases, the application wants to add a deck.gl 3D layer (e.g. ArcLayer, HexagonLayer, GeoJsonLayer) on top of a Mapbox basemap, while seamlessly blend into the z-buffer. This will interleave the useful visualization layers from both the deck.gl and Mapbox layer catalogs. In this case, the Mapbox map.addLayer(layer) API method can be used to add a mix of deck.gl and Mapbox layers to the top of the layer stack from the currently loaded Mapbox style.

Inserting a 2D deck layer before an existing Mapbox layer

One major use case for mixing deck.gl and Mapbox layers is that some important information in the Mapbox map is hidden by a deck.gl visualization layer, and controlling opacity is not enough. A typical example of this is labels and roads, where it is desirable to have a deck.gl visualization layer render on top of the Mapbox geography, but where one might still want to see e.g. labels and/or roads. Alternatively, the deck.gl visualization should cover the ground, but not the roads and labels.

A bit more control is provided by the optional before parameter of the Mapbox map.addLayer(layer, before?) API. Using this parameter, it is possible to inject a MapboxLayer instance just before any existing Mapbox layer in the layer stack of the currently loaded style.

Mapbox provides an example of finding the first label layer. For more sophisticated injection point lookups, refer to Mapbox' documentation on the format of Mapbox style layers, see Mapbox Style Spec.


What projection to use with Mapbox base/reference layers? - Geographic Information Systems

The BitmapLayer renders a bitmap at specified boundaries.

To install the dependencies from NPM:

To use pre-bundled scripts:

  • If a string is supplied, it is interpreted as a URL or a Data URL.
  • One of the valid pixel sources for WebGL texture
  • A luma.gl Texture2D instance
  • A plain object that can be passed to the Texture2D constructor, e.g. . Note that whenever this object shallowly changes, a new texture will be created.

The image data will be converted to a Texture2D object. See textureParameters prop for advanced customization.

  • Coordinates of the bounding box of the bitmap [left, bottom, right, top]
  • Coordinates of four corners of the bitmap, should follow the sequence of [[left, bottom], [left, top], [right, top], [right, bottom]] . Each position could optionally contain a third component z .

left and right refers to the world longitude/x at the corresponding side of the image. top and bottom refers to the world latitude/y at the corresponding side of the image.

loadOptions (Object, optional)

On top of the default options, also accepts options for the following loaders:

If not specified, the layer uses the following defaults to create a linearly smoothed texture from image :

For example, to remove smoothing and achieve a pixelated appearance:

This prop is only used when image initially loads or changes.

_imageCoordinateSystem (Number, optional)

Note: this prop is experimental.

Specifies how image coordinates should be geographically interpreted.

By default, the image is uniformly stretched to fill the geometry defined by bounds . This might not be desirable if the image is encoded in a different coordinate system from the projection that the layer is using. For example, a satellite image encoded in longitude/latitude should not be interpreted linearly when placed in a Web Mercator visualization.

This prop allows you to explicitly inform the layer of the coordinate system of the image:

  • COORDINATE_SYSTEM.LNGLAT if x-axis maps to longitude and y-axis maps to latitude
  • COORDINATE_SYSTEM.CARTESIAN if the image is pre-projected into the Web Mercator plane.

This option only works with geospatial views and bounds that is orthogonal ( [left, bottom, right, top] ).

See the article on Coordinate Systems for more information.

The desaturation of the bitmap. Between [0, 1] . 0 being the original color and 1 being grayscale.

The color to use for transparent pixels, in [r, g, b, a] . Each component is in the [0, 255] range.

The color to tint the bitmap by, in [r, g, b] . Each component is in the [0, 255] range.

(From v8.4) The picking info passed to callbacks ( onHover , onClick , etc.) provides information on which pixel was picked. It contains an additional bitmap field if applicable:

  • bitmap
    • pixel ( [number, number] ) Integer coordinates into the bitmap
    • size () Size of bitmap in pixels
    • uv ( [number, number] ) Normalized (0-1) floating point coordinates

    Note that the bitmap field can be null if on mouse leave or if the bitmap has not yet loaded.

    The following code reads the picked pixel color from the bitmap when the layer is clicked:


    Data Driven Maps using MapBox GL (choropleth with base map and fast)

    tldr version: How do we build a fast choropleth map with MapBox GL?

    But this example shows loading GeoJSON files directly in javascript. One question about how to handle large GeoJSON files. Let's say you have a 18M GeoJSON file. And you want to view a map and Data-Driven Styles and do it all efficiently.

    For example, I have loaded a large GeoJSON file:

    and it loads instantly and does not transfer the entire 18M over the network at load time.

    But when I use the approach Ryan is showing, it appears that I have to load the entire 18M file over the network at load time. That is much slower especially on a slow network.

    I'd like to know is there a way to have data-driven styles AND a base map from mapbox all on the same map?

    https://cityregister.firebaseapp.com/map.html (loads instantly, has base map, all resides on mapbox studio server. NO data-driven style

    https://cityregister.firebaseapp.com/testmapboxlayerchoropleth.html (loads very slowly, has base map, base map on mapbox, geojson on another server. Uses data-driven style https://cityregister.firebaseapp.com/testmapboxlayerchoropleth.html (loads instantly, NO base map, seems to be all mapbox-gl generated, Uses data-driven style.

    My question is how to get the speed of mapbox AND the data-driven styles AND a base map with streets, etc.


    If the input feature class or dataset has an unknown or unspecified coordinate system, you can specify the input dataset's coordinate system with the Input Coordinate System parameter. This allows you to specify the data's coordinate system without having to modify the input data (which may not be possible if the input is a read-only format). Also, you can use the Define Projection tool to permanently assign a coordinate system to the dataset.

    All types of feature classes (geodatabase feature classes, coverage feature classes, SDC feature classes, and shapefiles), feature datasets in a geodatabase and feature layers in ArcGIS applications (ArcMap, ArcScene, and ArcGlobe) are valid input.

    Coverages, VPF Coverages, raster datasets, and raster catalogs are not supported as input to this tool. Use the Project Raster tool to project raster datasets.

    To project a Coverage, use the Project tool in the Coverage toolbox.

      For example, a geographic transformation is not required when projecting from GCS_North_American_1983 to NAD_1983_UTM_Zone_12N because both the input and output coordinate systems have a NAD_1983 datum. However, projecting from GCS_North_American_1983 to WGS_1984_UTM_Zone_12N requires a geographic transformation because the input coordinate system uses the NAD_1983 datum, while the output coordinate system uses the WGS_1984 datum.

    Transformations are bidirectional. For example, if converting data from WGS 1984 to NAD 1927, you can pick a transformation called NAD_1927_to_WGS_1984_3, and the tool will apply it correctly.

    The in_memory workspace is not supported as a location to write the output dataset.

    • A feature dataset containing a network dataset: the network dataset must be rebuilt.
    • A feature dataset containing a topology: the topology should be validated again.

    If the input participates in relationship classes (as with feature-linked annotation), the relationship class will be transferred to the output. The exception to this rule relates to participating stand-alone tables.

    Depending on the input feature's coordinates and the horizon (valid extent) of the output coordinate system, multipoint, line, and polygon may be clipped or split into more than one part when projecting them. Features that fall completely outside the horizon will be written to the output with a Null shape. These can be deleted using the Repair Geometry tool.

    Feature classes participating in a geometric network cannot be projected independently—the entire feature dataset containing the network needs to be projected.

    Many geoprocessing tools honor the output coordinate system environment setting, and in many workflows you can use this environment setting instead of using the Project tool. For example, the Union tool honors the output coordinate system environment setting, which means you can union several feature classes together, all of which are in a different coordinate system, and write the unioned output to a feature class in an entirely different coordinate system.

    Selection and definition query on layers are ignored by this tool—all features in the dataset referenced by the layer will be projected. If you want to project selected features only, consider using the Copy Features tool to create a temporary dataset, which will only contain the selected features, and use this intermediate dataset as input to the Project tool.

    When a feature class within a feature dataset is used as input, the output cannot be written to the same feature dataset. This is because feature classes within a feature dataset must all have the same coordinate system. In this case, the output feature class will be written to the geodatabase containing the feature dataset.

    The Preserve Shape parameter, when checked, creates output features that more accurately represent their true projected location. Preserve Shape is especially useful in cases where a line or polygon boundary is digitized as a long, straight line with few vertices. If Preserve Shape is not checked, the existing vertices of the input line or polygon boundary are projected, and the result may be a feature that is not accurately located in the new projection. When Preserve Shape is checked ( preserve_shape="PRESERVE_SHAPE" in Python), extra vertices are added to the feature before projecting. These extra vertices preserve the projected shape of the feature. The Maximum Offset Deviation parameter controls how many extra vertices are added its value is the maximum distance the projected feature can be offset from its exact projected location as computed by the tool. When the value is small, more vertices are added. Choose a value that suits your needs. For example, if your projected output is for general small-scale cartographic display, a large deviation may be acceptable. If your projected output is to be used in large-scale, small-area analysis, a smaller deviation may be needed.

    To perform a vertical transformation, check the optional Vertical parameter on the dialog. By default, the Vertical parameter is disabled and is only enabled when the input and output coordinate systems have Vertical Coordinate System, and the input feature class coordinates have Z values. Also, additional data (Coordinate Systems Data) setup needs to be installed on the system.

    When you select the output coordinate system, you will be able to choose both the geographic or projected coordinate system and a vertical coordinate system (VCS). If the input and output vertical coordinate systems are different, an appropriate vertical and an optional geographic (datum) transformations is available. If a transformation should be applied in the opposite direction to its definition, choose the entry with the tilde (


    What projection to use with Mapbox base/reference layers? - Geographic Information Systems

    The CompositeLayer class is a subclass of the Layer Class, that customizes various layer lifecycle methods to help create sublayers and handle events from those layers.

    If you intend to implement a layer that generates other layers, you should extend this class.

    For more information consult the Composite Layers article.

    Define a composite layer that renders a set of sublayers, one of them conditionally

    Inherits from all Base Layer properties.

    _subLayerProps (Object) EXPERIMENTAL

    Key is the id of a sublayer and value is an object used to override the props of the sublayer. For a list of ids rendered by each composite layer, consult the Sub Layers section in each layer's documentation.

    Example: make only the point features in a GeoJsonLayer respond to hover and click

    Example: use IconLayer instead of ScatterplotLayer to render the point features in a GeoJsonLayer

    true if all asynchronous assets are loaded, and all sublayers are also loaded.

    A Layer instance if this layer is rendered by a CompositeLayer

    A composite layer does not render directly into the WebGL context. The draw method inherited from the base class is therefore never called.

    Allows a layer to "render" or insert one or more deck.gl layers after itself. Called after a layer has been updated.

    The default implementation of renderLayers returns null .

    renderLayers can return a nested arrays with null values. deck.gl will automatically flatten and filter the array. See usage above.

    Called when a sublayer is being hovered or clicked, after the getPickingInfo of the sublayer has been called. The composite layer can override or add additional fields to the info object that will be passed to the callbacks.

    pickParams.info (Object) - The current info object. By default it contains the following fields:

    • x (Number) - Mouse position x relative to the viewport.
    • y (Number) - Mouse position y relative to the viewport.
    • coordinate ( [Number, Number] ) - Mouse position in world coordinates. Only applies if the coordinateSystem prop is set to COORDINATE_SYSTEM.LNGLAT .
    • color (Number [4] ) - The color of the pixel that is being picked. It represents a "picking color" that is encoded by layer.encodePickingColor() .
    • index (Number) - The index of the object that is being picked. It is the returned value of layer.decodePickingColor() .
    • picked (Boolean) - true if index is not -1 .

    pickParams.mode (String) - One of hover and click

    pickParams.sourceLayer (Layer) - the sublayer instance where this event originates from.

    • An info object with optional fields about what was picked. This object will be passed to the layer's onHover or onClick callbacks.
    • null , if the corresponding event should be cancelled with no callback functions called.

    The default implementation returns pickParams.info without any change.

    This utility method helps create sublayers that properly inherit a composite layer's basic props. For example, it creates a unique id for the sublayer, and makes sure the sublayer's coordinateSystem is set to be the same as the parent.

    • subLayerProps (Object)
      • id (String, required) - an id that is unique among all the sublayers generated by this composite layer.
      • updateTriggers (Object) - the sublayer's update triggers.
      • Any additional props are optional.

      Returns a properties object used to generate a sublayer, with the following keys:

      • id - a unique id for the sublayer, by prepending the parent layer id to the sublayer id.
      • updateTriggers - merged object of the parent layer update triggers and the sublayer update triggers.
      • Base layer props that are directly forwarded from the base layer:
        • opacity
        • pickable
        • visible
        • parameters
        • getPolygonOffset
        • highlightedObjectIndex
        • autoHighlight
        • highlightColor
        • coordinateSystem
        • coordinateOrigin
        • wrapLongitude
        • positionFormat
        • modelMatrix

        Called to determine if a sublayer should be rendered. A composite layer can override this method to change the default behavior.

        Returns true if the sublayer should be rendered. The base class implementation returns true if either data is not empty or the _subLayerProps prop contains override for this sublayer.

        Called to retrieve the constructor of a sublayer. A composite layer can override this method to change the default behavior.

        • id (String) - the sublayer id
        • DefaultLayerClass - the default constructor used for this sublayer.

        Constructor for this sublayer. The base class implementation checks if type is specified for the sublayer in _subLayerProps , otherwise returns the default.

        Used by adapter layers) to decorate transformed data with a reference to the original object.

        • row (Object) - a custom data object to pass to a sublayer.
        • sourceObject (Object) - the original data object provided by the user
        • sourceObjectIndex (Object) - the index of the original data object provided by the user

        The row object, decorated with a reference.

        Used by adapter layers) to allow user-provided accessors to read the original objects from transformed data.


        What projection to use with Mapbox base/reference layers? - Geographic Information Systems

        Class List Definitions

        A position is a type of vertex that is located in, on, or above the Earth but is always locatable using a geo-referenced coordinate system. Physical objects such as wells and other facilities have a position on the Earth. The exact position of a facility may be reported differently due to the vagaries of the various instruments used to determine positions or rules imposed by company or government bodies. These differing positions can be reported as "alternate" positions.

        A geographic area of any type. An area is bounded by at least one polyline. It could also have a more complex shape with holes defined by inner polygons with islands in the holes with their own outer polygons. Areas may also include a set of polygons (multipolygon), each with its own exterior boundary as in a chain of islands.

        The points used to define the boundary polylines, which themselves define an enclosed area.

        A reference for an azimuth against which a Deviation_Survey point is corrected.

        Class for all coordinate systems, per the Spatial Strategy Document. This class defines the lateral and vertical datum to which all Seabed positions are relative. Coordinate_System is needed in project to support local coordinate systems, elevation references, azimuth references, and unknowns.

        Identifiers of any of several types of regions used to divide the surface of the earth geographically or politically, such as country, state, etc.

        An electronic unit that utilizes a system of numerous Earth-orbiting satellites that can be used to determine the location (latitude, longitude and elevation) of a receiver or station on the Earth.

        A sequence of one or more line segments, which need not be connected (i.e., a line can have gaps). The line segments are a connected sequence of two or more points. For simplicity, there is no explicit line segment entity line segmentation is merely an attribute of the vertices.

        Entity containing the vertices of a line.

        A multipoint is a collection of points. A multipoint is simple if none of its elements occupy the same coordinate space.

        Properties of a position located offshore.

        A type of vertex that is located in, on, or above the Earth but is always locatable using a geo-referenced coordinate system.

        Position_Xref stores cross references between a Position and another business object such as a Land Agreement (for example, a lease or contract) or a Basin. This allows any object which has a spatial position, such as a Well or other Facility, to be associated with other business objects as needed.

        Coordinate transforms from one geographic coordinate reference system to another. Coordinate transformation definitions should come from ESRI for use with the SDE projection engine. If additions are made, they are expected to integrate with the use of the projection engine and therefore should follow the extension guidelines provided by ESRI. For more information see the web page, http://arcsdeonline.esri.com/index.htm and follow the links, Developer Interfaces> C API> C API Concepts> Coordinate Systems and Projections> Using persistent user defined objects.

        A reference entity that defines the members of a complex cartographic transformation. For Concatenated transformations, the members are the sequential steps performed to achieve the complete transformation. For Alternate transforms, the members are the alternates while the Base is the original transform to which the alternates apply. For Alternate transforms, the sequence number determines the order in which the alternates should be tried, beginning with sequence 1, then sequence 2, etc.

        A reference entity that defines the different types of rules that drive the selection of which cartographic transform to use. Example values are: "Simple" - only the primary transform is used, "Fallback" - an "alternate" transform, one to use when the primary transform fails, "Concatenated" - a multi-step transform, and "Location" - one which depends on the location of a point or shape.

        The coordinate reference system used in project scope. This will include ESRI coordinate reference systems accessible with the projection engine as well as other well known local, legacy, or proprietary coordinate reference systems that need to be shared. Coordinate reference system definitions should come from ESRI for use with the SDE projection engine. If additions are made, they are expected to integrate with the use of the projection engine and therefore should follow the extension guidelines provided by ESRI. For more information see the Web page, http://arcsdeonline.esri.com/index.htm and follow the links, Developer Interfaces> C API> C API Concepts> Coordinate Systems and Projections> Using persistent user defined objects.

        Controlled names of the cartographic packages that define coordinate systems. Examples include ESRI, Mentor and EPSG.

        This entity contains codes and descriptions for the types of coordinate reference systems (CRSs). CRSs are classified as geographic, geocentric, engineering, vertical, compound, projected or some combination of these. A 3D geographic CRS has axes of latitude, longitude and ellipsoidal height. GPS receivers indicate location in this manner. A 2D geographic CRS has axes of latitude and longitude and is the horizontal subset of a 3D geographic CRS. A projected CRS is a Cartesian 2D system with axes of easting and northing. The axes are referred to as E and N or X and Y, in any order. Projected coordinates result from the conversion of geographic 2D coordinates through a map projection. The list of CRS types includes: Compound, Engineering, Geocentric, Geographic2D, Geographic3D, Projected, Vertical, Compound Proj + Vertical, and Compound Geog2D + Vertical.

        Mappings between various catalog coordinate reference systems. The ESRI coordinate system code is understandable to the system projection engine. The Match coordinate system code is used in an external system and is understood to be equal to the ESRI code by this comparison.

        A reference table for time zones. A time zone is a region of the Earth that uses the same standard time (the "local" time) throughout. Moving west, adjacent time zones increment by one hour. Local time is computed as an offset, in hours and minutes, from UTC (also known as Greenwich Mean Time (GMT)).

        Used as the datum or zero point for depth or elevation measurements. This reference table holds the list of valid Vertical_Reference values.

        A means for providing an ESRI ArcSDE layer parameter that defines how spatial primitive data for positions, lines or areas, are displayed on a map.

        Properties of a position that are represented in a land surveying system. The systems covered here include congressional, Carter, Other Jeffersonian, and Texas.


        Access a grid's properties by right-clicking it in the Grids and Graticules Designer window. The Grid Properties window contains two tabs, Grid General and Feature Settings.

        Grid General properties

        The Grid General tab displays grid context information like name and coordinate system.

        Properties available on the Grid General tab

        • Type—The type of grid that will be created. All grids of the same type will have the same appearance. Type defines a style of grid, map product, or series.
        • Description—A specified description of the grid.
        • Primary Coordinate System—There are six ways to automatically calculate primary coordinate systems. The geographic coordinate systems of the grid template, source extent, and feature dataset must all match. The Grids and Graticules Designer and the Make Grids And Graticules Layer geoprocessing tool will enforce this requirement. The coordinate system calculation methods are set up using the Grids and Graticules Designer and stored in the grid template xml file. The calculation methods are used when a grid definition xml file is loaded into the Make Grids And Graticules Layer geoprocessing tool. You can change the primary coordinate system when running the geoprocessing tool. The calculation methods are
          • Fixed—The coordinate system set in the Grids and Graticules Designer will be the default coordinate system that displays in the Make Grids And Graticules Layer geoprocessing tool.
          • Calculate UTM Zone—The coordinate system chosen will be a UTM projection based on the extent specified. The base geographic coordinate system will also adjust to ensure that it matches the geographic coordinate system used by the AOI.
          • Calculate Nearest Neighbor UTM Zone—The coordinate system chosen will be a UTM projection based on the UTM zone nearest to the extent specified. The base geographic coordinate system will also adjust to ensure that it matches the geographic coordinate system used by the AOL.
          • Calculate Central Meridian and Parallels—A base coordinate system must be specified in the Grids and Graticules Designer, and it must be a projection that has at least one meridian or parallel property, or both. When the xml and the extent are specified in the Make Grids And Graticules Layer geoprocessing tool, the base project will have meridians and parallels updated to divide the extent evenly.
          • Use Environment—The coordinate system from the active environment is used when running the Make Grids And Graticules Layer geoprocessing tool.
          • Coordinate System Zones—The coordinate system is determined from polygon feature classes loaded in the Coordinate System Zones area. This will display as Use <feature class name> in the Type drop-down list.

          Feature Settings properties

          The Feature Settings tab controls grid display information like reference scale and rotation.


          You know what to do? Perfect. Search “NASA leaflet earthdata” and choose the appropriate GIBS Map Library Usage hit. Navigate to Leaflet and choose GIS Web examples. Find Antarctic (EPSG:3031) and move down in this tutorial to parameter format for use in preview.

          Basically for slippy maps you need on-line data from service providers. Best known are the WMS and OSM tiling services. All of some send you by request rasterized tiles of georeferenced maps, satellite images and so on. Usually you want to add your own vector or raster data overlay. Depending on the service and the client there are almost all possibilities out there. One of leaflets major pros is that it is easy and fast. The main reason is that it is a client side approach what means that your browser and your CPU has to do all the work because usually you are getting the data “as it is delivered”.

          To learn how to prepare on-line services for mapview/leaflet we have to dive into the world of web mapping services.You will find a brief and simple explanation of how web maps (web services for web maps) works at Mapbox in the article ( How web maps works ). Unfortunately you have to forget the last conclusion.

          Basically we need to access from a high level client (mapview) data tiles to retrieve. So we have to to know (1) which products are available (2) which map projections are available (3) how many zoom levels per product are available and (4) which protocol to access the data is available.

          Due to the fact that without a service provider you hardly will find a service and data, it is obviously rational that you first take a look at this topic. For an introduction of the WMS related services you will find a perfect outline of what OGC services are around and what they mean in the QGIS OGC Documentation. Please note even if this documentations refers to GIS as a client all decribed concepts of the services are valid for all type of clients. For the OSM tiling concept you may have a look at the OSM Wiki topic called Tiles. Both concepts differ pretty much even if you will get as a result - tiles.

          In theory, everything seems to be clear so far.


          Projection of future land use/cover change in the Izeh-Pyon Plain of Iran using CA-Markov model

          Detection and prediction of land use and land cover (LULC) changes in natural resource management and environmental monitoring provide the regional and national decision-makers with useful information. Izeh-Pyon Plain as one of the important wildlife habitats in Khuzestan Province, Iran was selected to detect LULC changes in the past three decades (1985–2017), and LULC in 2033 was also predicted. The LULC maps were obtained using the maximum likelihood classification and Landsat images for (TM) 1985, (ETM+) 2001, and (OLI) 2017. The LULC mapping for 2033 was done using cellular automata and Markov chain (CA-Markov) model and validating the model in the 2017 map simulation. Suitability maps were prepared for each LULC class using weighted linear combination method and applying constraint maps, whereas the weight of each criterion was determined in analytical hierarchy process and standardized based on fuzzy theory. Furthermore, CA-Markov validation was performed using three measures of quantity disagreement, allocation disagreement, and figure of merit. The results showed that from 1985 to 2017, wetlands, forests, and grassland areas decreased by 43.7%, 9.21%, and 8.43%, respectively. In contrast, agricultural lands and residential areas increased by 26.38% and 129.3%, respectively. This decreasing/increasing trend will continue up to 2033, so that one of the wetlands will completely dry out by 2033 and compared with 1985 and 2017, total wetland area will decrease by 68% and 44%, respectively. Since these wetlands are home to many birds and aquatic animals and are considered the tourist attraction of the region, their destruction and the increase of crop production will seriously threaten the ecosystem of the region in the future.

          This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


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