More

Compare 2 tables of different lengths

Compare 2 tables of different lengths


I have 2 Layers: Not_Joined and Joined

Not_Joined: Old digitized data that has X attribute in it. Joined: Spatially joined layer that has the polylines with X attribute in in the table

Each row in "Joined" has a field that says how many polylines of Not_Joined have been joined to the one element.

Goal: Compare the X attribute in both tables to give accuracy.

Problem: Table length in Joined is 4X bigger than Not_ Joined, so basic for loop will not work here.


Figured out part of it

Query Table from Joined Layer-> Join on Not_Joined based on X. This seems to work well.


If you want comparable table, you could start with a "summary statistics" of the largest table (Not_joined) based on the field X.

Then your table will be of comparable length and content (with a count in the summarized table)


Compare 2 tables of different lengths - Geographic Information Systems

GATT Server Service Table Example Walkthrough

This document presents a walkthrough of the GATT Server Service Table example code for the ESP32. This example implements a Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) Generic Attribute (GATT) Server using a table-like data structure to define the server services and characteristics such as the one shown in the figure below Therefore, it demonstrates a practical way to define the server functionality in one place instead of adding services and characteristics one by one.

This example implements the Heart Rate Profile as defined by the Traditional Profile Specifications.

Let’s start by taking a look at the included headers in the gatts_table_creat_demo.c file:

These includes are required for the FreeRTOS and underlaying system components to run, including logging functionality and a library to store data in non-volatile flash memory. We are interested in bt.h , esp_bt_main.h , esp_gap_ble_api.h and esp_gatts_api.h which expose the BLE APIs required to implement this example.

  • bt.h : implements BT controller and VHCI configuration procedures from the host side.
  • esp_bt_main.h : implements initialization and enabling of the Bluedroid stack.
  • esp_gap_ble_api.h : implements GAP configuration such as advertising and connection parameters.
  • esp_gatts_api.h : implements GATT Server configuration such as creating services and characteristics.

The header file gatts_table_creat_demo.h is where an enumeration of the services and characteristics is created:

The enumeration elements are set up in the same order as the Heart Rate Profile attributes, starting with the service followed by the characteristics of that service. In addition, the Heart Rate Measurement characteristic has a Client Characteristic Configuration (CCC) descriptor which is an additional attribute that describes if the characteristic has notifications enabled. The enumeration index can be used to identify each element later when creating the actual attributes table. In summary, the elements are described as follows:

  • HRS_IDX_SVC : Heart Rate Service index
  • HRS_IDX_HR_MEAS_CHAR : Heart Rate Measurement characteristic index
  • HRS_IDX_HR_MEAS_VAL : Heart Rate Measurement characteristic value index
  • HRS_IDX_HR_MEAS_NTF_CFG : Heart Rate Measurement notifications configuration (CCC) index
  • HRS_IDX_BOBY_SENSOR_LOC_CHAR : Heart Rate Body Sensor Location characteristic index
  • HRS_IDX_BOBY_SENSOR_LOC_VAL : Heart Rate Body Sensor Location characteristic value index
  • HRS_IDX_HR_CTNL_PT_CHAR : Heart Rate Control Point characteristic index
  • HRS_IDX_HR_CTNL_PT_VAL : Heart Rate Control Point characteristic value index
  • HRS_IDX_NB : Number of table elements.

The entry point to this example is the app_main() function:

The main function starts by initializing the non-volatile storage library in order to be able to save parameters in flash memory.

BT Controller and Stack Initialization

This example implements one Application Profile for the Heart Rate Service. An Application Profile is a way to group functionality which is designed to be used by one client application, for example one smartphone mobile app. In this way, different types of profiles can be accommodated in one server. The Application Profile ID, which is an user-assigned number to identify each profile, is used to register the profile in the stack, in this example the ID is 0x55.

The profiles are stored in the heart_rate_profile_tab array. Since there is only one profile in this example, one element is stored in the array with index zero as defined by the HEART_PROFILE_APP_IDX . Additionally, the profile event handler callback function is initialized. Each application on the GATT server uses a different interface, represented by the gatts_if parameter. For initialization, this parameter is set to ESP_GATT_IF_NONE , later when the application is registered, the gatts_if parameter is updated with the corresponding interface generated by the stack.

The application registration takes place inside app_main() using the esp_ble_gatts_app_register() function:

The register application event is the first one that is triggered during the lifetime of the program. This example uses this event to configure advertising parameters upon registration in the profile event handler. The functions used to achieve this are:

  • esp_ble_gap_set_device_name() : used to set the advertised device name.
  • esp_ble_gap_config_adv_data() : used to configure standard advertising data.

The function used to configure standard Bluetooth Specification advertisement parameters is esp_ble_gap_config_adv_data() which takes a pointer to an esp_ble_adv_data_t structure. The esp_ble_adv_data_t data structure for advertising data has the following definition:

In this example, the structure is initialized as follows:

The minimum and maximum slave preferred connection intervals are set in units of 1.25 ms. In this example, the minimum slave preferred connection interval is defined as 0x0006 * 1.25 ms = 7.5 ms and the maximum slave preferred connection interval is initialized as 0x0010 * 1.25 ms = 20 ms.

An advertising payload can be up to 31 bytes of data. It is possible that some of the parameters surpass the 31-byte advertisement packet limit which causes the stack to cut the message and leave some of the parameters out. To solve this, usually the longer parameters are stored in the scan response, which can be configured using the same esp_ble_gap_config_adv_data() function and an additional esp_ble_adv_data_t type structure with the .set_scan_rsp parameter is set to true. Finally, to set the device name the esp_ble_gap_set_device_name() function is used. The registering event handler is shown as follows:

Once the advertising data have been set, the ESP_GAP_BLE_ADV_DATA_SET_COMPLETE_EVT is triggered and managed by the GAP event handler. Moreover, an ESP_GAP_BLE_SCAN_RSP_DATA_SET_COMPLETE_EVT is triggered as well if the scan response is also set. Once the configuration of the advertising and scan response data has been set, the handler can use any of these events to start advertising, which is done using the esp_ble_gap_start_advertising() function:

The function to start advertising takes a structure of type esp_ble_adv_params_t with the advertising parameters required.

Note that esp_ble_gap_config_adv_data() configures the data that is advertised to the client and takes an esp_ble_adv_data_t structure , while esp_ble_gap_start_advertising() makes the server to actually start advertising and takes an esp_ble_adv_params_t structure. The advertising data is the information that is shown to the client, while the advertising parameters are the configuration required by the BLE stack to execute.

For this example, the advertisement parameters are initialized as follows:

These parameters configure the advertising interval between 20 ms to 40 ms. The advertisement is of type ADV_IND, which is generic, not directed to a particular central device and advertises the server as connectable. The address type is public, uses all channels and allows both scan and connection requests from any central.

If the advertising started successfully, an ESP_GAP_BLE_ADV_START_COMPLETE_EVT event is generated which in this example is used to check if the advertising status is indeed advertising or otherwise print an error message.

When an Application Profile is registered, an ESP_GATTS_REG_EVT event is triggered. The parameters of the ESP_GATTS_REG_EVT are:

In addition to the previous parameters, the event also contains the GATT interface assigned by the BLE stack. The event is captured by the gatts_event_handler() which stores the generated interface in the profile table and then forwards it to the corresponding profile event handler.

Creating Services and Characteristics with the Attribute Table

The register event is used to create a table of profile attributes by employing the esp_ble_gatts_create_attr_tab() function. This function takes an argument of type esp_gatts_attr_db_t which corresponds to a look up table keyed by the enumeration values defined in the header file.

The esp_gatts_attr_db_t structure has two members:

The attr_control is the auto-respond parameter which can be set as ESP_GATT_AUTO_RSP to allow the BLE stack to take care of responding messages when read or write events arrive. The other option is ESP_GATT_RSP_BY_APP which allows to manually respond to messages using the esp_ble_gatts_send_response() function.

The att_desc is the attribute description which is made of:

For example, the first element of the table in this example is the service attribute:

The initialization values are:

  • [HRS_IDX_SVC] : Named or designated initializer in the enum table.
  • ESP_GATT_AUTO_RSP : Auto respond configuration, set to respond automatically by the stack.
  • ESP_UUID_LEN_16 : UUID length set to 16 bits.
  • (uint8_t *)&primary_service_uuid : UUID to identify the service as a primary one (0x2800).
  • ESP_GATT_PERM_READ : Read Permission for the service.
  • sizeof(uint16_t) : Maximum length of the service UUID (16 bits).
  • sizeof(heart_rate_svc) : Current service length set to the size of the variable heart_rate_svc, which is 16 bits.
  • (uint8_t *)&heart_rate_svc : Service attribute value set to the variable heart_rate_svc which contains the Heart Rate Service UUID (0x180D).

The rest of the attributes is initialized in the same way. Some attributes also have the NOTIFY property which is set by &char_prop_notify . The complete table structure is initialized as follows:

When the attribute table is created, an ESP_GATTS_CREAT_ATTR_TAB_EVT event is triggered. This event has the following parameters:

This example uses this event to print information and to check that the size of the created table equals the number of elements in the enumeration HRS_IDX_NB. If the table is correctly created, the attribute handles are copied into the handle table heart_rate_handle_table and the service is started using the esp_ble_gatts_start_service() function:

The handles stored in the handles pointer of the event parameters are numbers that identify each attribute. The handles can be used to know which characteristic is being read or written to, therefore they can be passed around and to upper layers of the application to handle different actions.

Finally, the heart_rate_handle_table contains the Application Profile in the form of a structure with information about the attribute parameters as well as GATT interface, connection ID, permissions and application ID. The profile structure is shown as follows, note that not all members are used in this example:

This document explains the work flow of the GATT Server Service Table example code that implements a Heart Rate Profile. This example begins by defining a table of attributes which include all the services and characteristics of the server, then it registers the Application Profile which triggers events that are used to configure GAP parameters and to create the service table. A service table is initialized with all the parameters required for each attribute and the service is started. This example shows a practical way of defining the server attributes by using a table instead of adding characteristic one by one.


Maps and mapping

Understanding our position on the globe is essential for many people. Maps represent this understanding and allow us to see relationships between features be they on the surface or underground. Topographic maps show surface features such as land height, water bodies and vegetation. Subsurface features, such as rock types and faults, are shown using geological maps. Precise positioning allows us to locate ourselves in the world and navigate to where we want to go in modern times highly accurate positioning is enabled by satellite technology such as GPS. Satellite imagery is now a vital source of information about features of the Earth and their changes over time.


Key stages

Phase Primary Secondary 16-18
Key stage KS1 KS2 KS3 KS4 -
School years R-2 3-6 7-9 10-11 12-14
Typical ages 4-7 7-11 11-14 14-16 16-18

National curriculum - further information on key stages and assessments taken.

This measure is based on students who enrolled on, and subsequently completed, a programme of studies that is categorised as mainly A levels. For further details, see the 16 to 18 Accountability Technical Guide opens in a new window .

Facilitating A levels are ones that are commonly needed for entry to leading universities. They are: biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, further mathematics, geography, history, English literature and classical or modern languages.

We calculate the 'best 3 A levels' score by adding each student’s points in their best 3 A levels, dividing by 3, then averaging across the eligible students in the school or college. This is also expressed as a grade.


Abstract

Natural systems often contain rhythmically fluctuating individual components which, when combined, can result in nonlinear patterns such as cycles, helixes, and parabolas. The self-organizing map (SOM) is a widely used artificial neural network for exploratory data analysis of high dimensional, multivariate data sets, however it encounters limitations when dealing with such highly nonlinear patterns. The SOMersault method is an expansion of the SOM, effective for gaining an understanding of patterns and clusters in natural data sets containing a low dimensional nonlinear manifold set amongst complex high dimensional data measurements. Data clusters become ordered with respect to the nonlinear degrees of freedom in the data, and patterns extracted are closely related to the data they represent. Results are shown on synthetic and real world data, involving a global set of river basins, with clustering and pattern extraction improvements displayed visually and quantified through a new set of geodesic error measures.


Paver Stone Mold PS 30036

Application areas for paving stones include residential terrace, schools, traffic and pedestrian walkways, road embankments, industrial and commercial buildings, landscape for open and closed court yards, churches and mosques.

  1. Plastic paver molds produce smooth and high quality paver stones and paver tiles.
  2. Different patterns of paver stone and tile molds are available for precast concrete process.
  3. Paver stones and tiles can be manufactured with minimum infrastructure and prior experience.
  4. Paver molds are in different shapes (square, rectangle and interlocking) and sizes.

Dimensions

PS 30036 Stone-casting Instructions:

Always apply release agent to your mold prior to casting concrete.
PS 30036 mold casting weight is about 9.9 lbs. (4.5 kg.)
We use this 1:2 cement to filler ratio mix : (you can also mix 1-part Portland cement to 3 parts sand [filler], but plasticizer and water has to be re-calculated by cement weight)
3.3 lbs (1.5 kg) Portland cement (white for light stone colors, gray for dark stone colors)
6.6 lbs (3 kg) Sand (20-30 mesh recommended. Silica sand or "all-purpose" sand works great)
13.3 oz (0.36 L) Water (We recommend water to be 20%-30% of cement weight.) (If your mix is too liquid, use less water.)
0.53 oz (15.1 g) Super-plasticizer (Superplasticizer's dosage rate is 0.5% -1% of cement weight. We are using 1%)
For best result always add dry pigments to your mix prior to adding the water. Mix concrete with pigment and additives for a few minutes, then add water (mix at least 3-5 minutes). You can also add Super plasticizer to the water 10-15 minutes prior to casting, then mix with dry ingredients.
Please note: Concrete minimum mixing time is 3 minutes (it takes a few minutes until Super Plasticizer absorbs into the cement and start reaction)
To color different molds sections, brush oxide pigment over the selected sections, then cast the concrete.
Cover the mold with plastic while it is curing. Remove the stone from the mold in 12-24 hours


Key stages

Phase Primary Secondary 16-18
Key stage KS1 KS2 KS3 KS4 -
School years R-2 3-6 7-9 10-11 12-14
Typical ages 4-7 7-11 11-14 14-16 16-18

National curriculum - further information on key stages and assessments taken.

This measure is based on students who enrolled on, and subsequently completed, a programme of studies that is categorised as mainly A levels. For further details, see the 16 to 18 Accountability Technical Guide opens in a new window .

Facilitating A levels are ones that are commonly needed for entry to leading universities. They are: biology, chemistry, physics, mathematics, further mathematics, geography, history, English literature and classical or modern languages.

We calculate the 'best 3 A levels' score by adding each student’s points in their best 3 A levels, dividing by 3, then averaging across the eligible students in the school or college. This is also expressed as a grade.


Surgical accuracy for hard tissue, evaluated by the differences between planning and after surgery based on cephalometric radiography, computed tomography (CT), and/or other available methods. Scientific evaluation tools were used to evaluate the differences in 3D.

Prediction precision for soft tissue, evaluated by the differences between the predicted and postoperative results based on cephalometric radiography, CT, orofacial photography findings, and/or data acquired using other available methods. Scientific evaluation tools were used to evaluate the differences in 3D.


Prepaid items are the homeowner’s insurance, mortgage interest, and property taxes that you pay when you buy a home. If you set up an escrow you’ll make an initial payment at closing. And your monthly payments to the lender will include insurance and taxes.

Prepaid interest charges on a mortgage loan represent the amount of interest that you owe between signing your loan agreement and making your first monthly payment. Also known as interim interest, prepaid interest is charged by lenders as part of the upfront closing costs in a mortgage.