2.33: Quiz Questions - Chapter 2 - Evolution of Life Through Time - Geosciences

2.33: Quiz Questions - Chapter 2 - Evolution of Life Through Time - Geosciences

1. Who was get credit for publishing a theory of natural selection, the fundamental concepts for the modern science of evolution?
a. Carl Linnaeus
b. Charles Darwin
c. Gregor Johann Mendel
d. James Watson and Francis Crick

2. The theory that populations that are separated environmentally can develop different features based upon an adaptation to their environment is called:
a. heredity.
b. natural selection.
c. divergent evolution.
d. convergent evolution.

3. For a species to avoid extinction, individuals must:
a. eat, survive, and reproduce.
b. deal with competion (within their own species or with other species).
c. be able to adapt to environmental changes.
d. all of the above.

4. "The total number of fossils that have been discovered, as well as to the information derived from them" is referred to as:
a. the geologic time scale.
b. the science of paleontology.
c. the fossil record.
d. fossilization.

5. Groups of these rock formations are parts of sequences that preserve the fossil record. Each of the sequences rests on the eroded surface on top of a previous sequence represented by a major regional unconformity (also called a sequence boundary). How many sequences (with their underlying unconformities) are recognized throughout North America (with equivalent features on other continents)?
a. two
b. four
c. six
d. eight

6. When geologic evidence suggest that photosyntheses and the first eukaryotic cells capable of oxygen-based respiration first appear on Earth?
a. about 4.56 billion years ago
b. about 4 billion years ago
c. about 3 billion years ago
d. about 1.8 billion years ago

7. When does it appear that sexual reproduction was fully established in eukaryote organisms?
a. about 600 million years ago
c. about 1.8 billion years ago

8. A mound of calcareous sediment built up of layers of lime-secreting cyanobacteria (blue-green bacteria, algae and other more primitive eukaryotic life forms) that trap sediment, creating layers accumulations is called:
a. a stromatolite.
b. a metazoan.
c. endosymbiosis.
d. Ediacaran fauna.

9. The earliest period of the Paleozoic Era when shelled organisms first appear in abundance in the sedimentary record is called the:
a. Precambrian Eon.
b. Cambrian Period.
c. Ordovician Period.
d. Devonian Period.
e. Jurassic Period.

10. When bony fishes and sharks first flourish in abundance in the Paleozoic Era?
a. Precambrian Eon
b. Cambrian Period
c. Ordovician Period
d. Devonian Period
e. Jurassic Period

11. What period did amphibians first appear in abundance in the fossil record?
a. Ordovician Period
b. Devonian Period
c. Mississippian Period
d. Permian Period
e. Triassic Period

12. During what period did great forested swamps exist that became the source of most of the extensive coal deposits through the Appalachians and Midwest regions of North America?
a. Devonian Period
b. Pennsylvanian Period
c. Permian Period
d. Triassic Period
e. Cretaceous Period

13. The greatest mass extinction occurred at the end of this period, possibly wiping out about 96% of marine species and 70% of land species that existed previously.
a. Jurassic Period

14. The Age of Reptiles best applies to which time range?
a. Mesozoic Era
b. Paleozoic Era
c. Cenozoic Era
d. Tertiary Period

15. The dinosaurs first appear in what geologic period?
a. Pennsylvanian Period
b. Permian Period
c. Triassic Period
d. Jurassic Period
e. Cretaceous Period

16. When do birds first appear in the fossil record?
a. Tertiary Period

17. Small mammals and flowering plant first appear in abundance in which geologic period?
a. Jurassic Period
b. Cretaceous Period
e. Tertiary Period

18. A great mass extinction, including the disappearance of dinosaurs and many forms of marine life, is believed to have been associated with a massive asteroid impact in the Yucatan region of Mexico. This occurred at the end of which period?
a. Tertiary Period

19. When did mammals with placental-type live birth appear in the fossil record?
a. Cretaceous Period
c. Paleocene Epoch
d. Eocene Epoch
e. Quaternary Period

20. The Ice Ages are associated with which geologic period?
a. Quaternary Period
c. Miocene Epoch

21. What is the name of the geologic epoch when human civilizations with cities first developed around the world?
a. Quaternary
b. Holocene
c. Anthropocene
e. Weshouldhavecene

Science Practice Challenge Questions

At a time when the theory of evolution was controversial (the year following the Scopes Monkey Trial), Macallum (Physiological Reviews, 2, 1926) made an observation that is still contested by some who do not see the pattern in the data below showing percentages (g solute /100 g solution) of major biologically important inorganic elements in a variety of sources.

Na + K + Ca +2 Mg +2 Cl –
0.306 0.011 0.012 0.0037 0.55
Lobster 0.903 0.0337 0.0438 0.0156 1.547
0.5918 0.02739 0.01609 0.0146 0.9819
0.6173 0.0355 0.0184 0.0172 1.042
Cod 0.416 0.0395 0.0163 0.00589 0.6221
Pollock 0.4145 0.017497 0.01286 0.00608 0.5613
Frog 0.195 0.0233 0.00627 0.00155 0.2679
0.3033 0.0201 0.0085 0.0023 0.4231
Blood 0.302 0.0204 0.0094 0.0021 0.389
Lung 0.2956 0.02095 0.00839 0.0021 0.3425
Testes 0.3023 0.01497 0.00842 0.001914 0.3737
0.2935 0.0164 0.0091 0.00184 0.3888

A. Using a spreadsheet, or by sharing calculations with your classmates, construct a quantitative model of these data from these percentages as ratios of mass fractions relative to that of sodium, %X/%Na. Of course, you will not be asked to use a spreadsheet on the AP Biology Exam. However, the ability to develop a quantitative model through the transformation of numerical data can be assessed. The question that led Macallum to investigate the elemental composition of different species and compare these with the composition of seawater follows from the central organizing principle of biology: the theory of evolution.

B. The elements in the table above all occur in aqueous solution as ions. The net charges on the inside and outside of a cell are both zero. A very large difference in the concentrations of ions, though, results in stresses that the cell must expend energy to relieve. Based on this constraint on the total number of ions, connect this refined model based on ratios of ion concentration rather than absolute ionic concentrations to the modern concept of shared ancestry.

Frequently, a follow-up question regarding scientific data on the AP Biology Exam will ask you to pose questions that are raised by the data. Credit will be awarded for scientific questions. These questions usually look for a cause-and-effect relationship, and are testable.

C. Examine relative concentrations of potassium and magnesium ions in terrestrial and marine organisms. Pose a question that could be investigated to connect concentrations of these ions to adaptations to a change in the environment.

Macallum noted the high potassium to sodium ratio relative to seawater, and made this claim about what the ratio implied about the oceans of early Earth:

“At once it is suggested that as the cell is older than its media is [presently] the relative proportions of the inorganic elements in it are of more ancient origin than the relative proportions of the same amount of elements which prevail in the media, blood plasma and lymph or in the ocean and river water of today.”

D. In your own words, summarize the argument that Macallum is using to justify this claim.

Approximately half the energy that flows through the Earth’s biosphere is captured by phytoplankton, photosynthetic microscopic organisms in the surface waters of the oceans. Scientists think the growth of phytoplankton in the Atlantic Ocean is limited by the availability of nitrogen, whereas growth in the Pacific Ocean is limited by the availability of iron.

The concentration of oxygen (O2) in the atmosphere of early Earth was low and, therefore, so was the concentration of dissolved oxygen in the early ocean. Because insoluble iron oxides (rust) do not form in the absence of oxygen, soluble iron ions (Fe 2+ ) were more available in the early ocean than at present since the concentration of oxygen is high. Nitrogen (N2), while always abundant in the atmosphere, was not available until the evolution of molybdenum-based nitrogen-fixing proteins.

The graphs (Anbar and Knoll, Science, 297, 2002) show models of concentrations of two trace elements, iron (Fe) and molybdenum (Mo), in ocean waters. The model describes the change over time of these elements from early Earth (>1.85 billion years ago, Gya) to a modern era (<1.25 Gya) and a period of transition between these. Surface waters of the oceans lie to the left of the vertical double line. Modern concentrations of dissolved iron and molybdenum (relative to dissolved carbon) are shown.

A. The principle chemical processes of life today have been conserved through evolution from early Earth conditions. Using this fact, justify the selection of these data shown in the graphs in the construction of a model of ocean photosynthetic productivity.

Iron and molybdenum are two of 30 elements that are required by the chemical processes supporting life on Earth. Concentrations of these two and 15 others are shown in the graph at the right. Of these elements, the three most abundant in cells are also found in seawater in approximately the same concentrations. By increasing the mass of phytoplankton in the ocean, we may be able to compensate for the increasing concentration of carbon produced by the combustion of gas, oil, and coal.

B. Select, with justification, the element or elements that, if added in large amounts to the ocean, could boost the growth of phytoplankton.

C. Before implementing a large-scale geo-engineering effort to avert the effects of climate change due to carbon pollution, we must test the legitimacy of this solution. Describe a plan for collecting data that could be used to evaluate the effect of enrichment on phytoplankton productivity.