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Python FindLabel Function for Label Expression with Formatting Font?

Python FindLabel Function for Label Expression with Formatting Font?


I originally had thisFindLabelfunction (which works)…

def FindLabel ( [NAME], [Count_] ): if [Count_] != None: return [NAME] +'
' + "Well Log Count: " + [Count_]

I wanted to format the font of the second line only, after ' ', using formatting tags. This is what I tried, and it did not work…

def FindLabel ( [NAME], [Count_] ): if [Count_] != None: return"[NAME] +'
' + "" & "Well Log Count: " + [Count_] & "

I also tried to set a variable, and this did not work either…

def FindLabel ( [NAME], [Count_] ): myCount = "" & "Well Log Count: " + [Count_] & " if [Count_] != None: return"[NAME] +'
' + myCount

Any thoughts?


This is python, and in your examples you're using the ampersand (&) to concatenate your string. You don't do this in the unformatted example that works. Use the plus sign - + - instead.Ampersand is used in VBScript.


Matplotlib: how to prevent x-axis labels from overlapping each other

I'm generating a bar-chart with matplotlib. It all works well but I can't figure out how to prevent the labels of the x-axis from overlapping each other. Here an example:

Here is some sample SQL for a postgres 9.1 database:

And this is my python-script:

Is there a way how I can prevent the labels from overlapping each other? Ideally in an automatic way, because I can't predict the amount of bars.


Use LaTeX Style. For Example: $^circ$ Text would produce °Text

See the matplotlib documentation for more information about printing (especially mathematical expression).

In your case the code has to be: plt.xlabel('Manufactured Ply Angle $^circ

2 Answers 2

I haven't figured out the perfect answer to this, but I've found a solution that has been useful for my own purposes.

Adjusting both the colWidth and the table width can shrink the rowLabel-column width. In the source code, there's actually a variable they use, rowLabelWidth, but they do not let the user set it. Anyways, first I'm just going to rewrite your existing code so you can see where changes are made. This is the original in a variable format:

Here's what's in the source code for rowLabelWidth, which we'll use to help figure out what to set width and colWidth to.

It appears you have set the chart to a width in axes([0.2, 0.45, 0.7, 0.45]), to 0.7, so we will set that to a variable, tb_width

The rowLabelWidth gets auto-sized, which doesn't really help us. But if you play around with the following three options for colWidths, you can start to figure out how to make it work the way you want. Add in bbox properties to state specifically where the table should be. An important thing to note is that it appears the rowLabelWidth is not included in the overall table width.

To ensure that the rowLabels fit right beneath the chart without sticking out on the left, use bbox coordinates. Using the bottom left hand corner of the table as your reference point, position the table: bbox=[x_coordinate, y_coordinate, width, height]. If the x_coordinate is set to account for your tb_colWidth, then it will shift the table over the exact amount necessary to have the rowLabels-column's leftmost side directly under the left corner of the chart above.

If this now causes the rightmost column to stick out from under the chart, then shrink the width by the size of one column:

You shouldn't have to do your final table cell loop of adjusting the cell widths, but instead, can control that using the above tools.


And to change back to normal:

This page is a good reference for printing in colors and font-weights. Go to the section that says 'Set graphics mode:'

And note this won't work on all operating systems but you don't need any modules.

You can use termcolor for this:

simple-colors is another package with similar syntax:

The equivalent in colorama may be Style.BRIGHT .

In straight-up computer programming, there is no such thing as "printing bold text". Let's back up a bit and understand that your text is a string of bytes and bytes are just bundles of bits. To the computer, here's your "hello" text, in binary.

Each one or zero is a bit. Every eight bits is a byte. Every byte is, in a string like that in Python 2.x, one letter/number/punctuation item (called a character). So for example:

The computer translates those bits into letters, but in a traditional string (called an ASCII string), there is nothing to indicate bold text. In a Unicode string, which works a little differently, the computer can support international language characters, like Chinese ones, but again, there's nothing to say that some text is bold and some text is not. There's also no explicit font, text size, etc.

In the case of printing HTML, you're still outputting a string. But the computer program reading that string (a web browser) is programmed to interpret text like this is <b>bold</b> as "this is bold" when it converts your string of letters into pixels on the screen. If all text were WYSIWYG, the need for HTML itself would be mitigated -- you would just select text in your editor and bold it instead of typing out the HTML.

Other programs use different systems -- a lot of answers explained a completely different system for printing bold text on terminals. I'm glad you found out how to do what you want to do, but at some point, you'll want to understand how strings and memory work.


pywhois is a Python module for retrieving WHOIS information of domains. pywhois works with Python 2.4+ and no external dependencies [Source]

In this script I’m using 8 possible answers, but please feel free to add more as you wish. There are 20 answers inside the Magic 8 Ball, and you can find them all here.

A common first step when you want to use a Web-based services is to see if they have an API. Luckily for me, Commandlinefu.com provides one and can be found here

In an earlier post “OS.walk in Python“, I described how to use os.walk and showed some examples on how to use it in scripts. In this article, I will show how to use the os.walk() module function to walk a directory tree, and the fnmatch module for matching file names.

This post will show how you can make a small and easy-to-use port scanner program written in Python.

Backup all MySQL databases, one in each file with a timestamp on the end using ConfigParser.

To make a request to the Web search API, we have to import the modules that we
need.

Pxssh is based on pexpect. It’s class extends pexpect.spawn to specialize setting up SSH connections.

This script can be used to parse date and time.

Bitly allows users to shorten, share, and track links (URLs). It’s a way to save, share and discover links on the web.

The smtplib module defines an SMTP client session object that can be used to send
mail to any Internet machine with an SMTP or ESMTP listener daemon. SMTP stands for Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.

This short script uses the os.listdir function (that belongs to the OS module) to search through a given path (“.”) for all files that endswith “.txt”.

Speedtest.net is a connection analysis website where users can test their internet
speed against hundreds of geographically dispersed servers around the world.

In this article, I will show how to use the os.walk() module function to walk a
directory tree, and the fnmatch module for matching file names.

Knowing how to parse JSON objects is useful when you want to access an API
from various web services that gives the response in JSON.

Time for a script again, this one will geolocate an IP address based on input from the user. For this script, we will be using a bunch of Python modules to accomplish this.

This script will ask the user for its username, by using the raw_input function. Then a list of allowed users is created named user1 and user2. The control statement checks if the input from the user matches the ones that are in the allowed users list.

This script will use the Twitter API to search for tweets.

In this post, I will show you how you can do it without that by just using
datetime.datetime.now() .

The second part of the post is about the the timedelta class, in which we can see
the difference between two date, time, or datetime instances to microsecond
resolution.

This is a classic “roll the dice” program.

This small script will count the number of hits in a Apache/Nginx log file.

This script will show all entries in the file that is specified in the log file
variable.

In this post, I will show you how you can print out the dates and times by just using datetime.datetime.now().

This small program extends the previous guessing game I wrote about in this
: post “Guessing Game”.

This script is an interactive guessing game, which will ask the user to guess a
number between 1 and 99.

You can use Pythons string and random modules to generate passwords.

OS.walk() generate the file names in a directory tree by walking the tree either top-down or bottom-up.

This script converts speed from KM/H to MPH, which may be handy for calculating
speed limits when driving abroad, especially for UK and US drivers.

In this script, we are going to use the re module to get all links from any website.


ImageMagick v6 Examples -- Text to Image Handling

Creating text labels, or adding text to images is probably one of the most basic and common operations for which ImageMagick is used. It is also one of the most simplest, but with scope for some very fancy results. As such this is a good place to start our exploration of IM's capabilities.

Text Operators in ImageMagick

What you have to keep in mind as you study these examples is that ImageMagick is primarily an image converter and modifier. As such each of methods provided are simple text drawing operators, such as adding labels and copyright messages to images. See Annotating Images.

All the text operators also understand and use a set of standard text processing settings such as, the " -font ", " -pointsize " to use. Also the " -fill " color setting and for more complex text drawing the " -strokewidth ", " -stroke " and " -undercolor " colors. In cases where you actually create a new image, such as label and captions, the " -background " color setting is also used.

And finally the newer " -kerning " and " -interword-spacing " modifiers.

What ImageMagick is not , is a full formatted text and document processor. If you want heavy text processing, you are better off using a full interactive word-processor, or batch text formatter like " TeX " (or or one of its flavors (see A Complete Text Processing System below). The output of these programs (generally postscript format) can then be converted into an image and further modified by ImageMagick. That is, use the right tool for the right job.

That said some mixed font handling can be done. For a starting point look at Creating Lines of Mixed Font Styles, near the bottom of this page.

Now, lets now look at the basic ways you can convert text into images. Later in the next section (Compound Fonts we'll look at generating some interesting font effects.

Label - Simple Text Label

Basic Labels

For example here is a typical generated label.

The above is probably the most typical usage of label, with a font selection and " -pointsize " defining the results. But it by far the least interesting way of generating text labels.

The ' label: ' image generated will also have the ' label ' Image Property meta-data set to the same string. Some file formats, such as MIFF and PNG, will save that specific property and can be used in later image processing programs. For and example of using 'label' meta-data, see Montage using Saved Meta-Data for examples.

If you also specify a " -size " then the generated label image will be created at that size.

You can also use " -gravity " to set the position of the label within that larger box.

Of course if you do not set a " -size " for the label, no extra space will be available in the generated " label: " for " -gravity " to use, making it rather useless.

The problem with using BOTH " -size " and " -pointsize " together is that the text could 'overflow' the specified image size.

Before version 6.5.2-4, IM would completely ignore the " -pointsize " setting if a " -size " setting is also given. This causes the text in the above images to be auto-sized according to the 'best fit' handling (see next set of examples).

Best Fit to Image

As you can see by setting a " -size " setting, you could end up with some extra space to the right or below the image.

When IM creates a 'bestfit' label, the actual pointsize it used is also saved into the ' label:pointsize ' Image Property, allowing you you use that information later. This was added to IM v6.6.2-7, during the forum discussion Pointsize Reporting

You can still adjust the position of the label in that extra space by adjusting the " -gravity " setting.

Of course if you do not set a " -size " for the label, no extra space will be available in the generated " label: " for " -gravity " to use, so it only makes sense when you ask for the image to be a specific size.

Now for the best news. If the " -size " setting you give only contains just width or the height for the label, the font will be adjusted to best fit that given dimension. The other dimension not specified will then be auto-adjusted to fit that text!

Basically that means the above " label: " will always be 160 pixels wide, with the largest font size for that width. The height of the label will then be adjusted to suit.

The same thing will be done if the height is specified but not the width.

This label is 40 pixels high, the undefined pointsize of the text was adjusted to fit that height, and then the undefined width was set to fit the drawn text. Exacly as you would expect.

Of course in this case there will again be little if no extra space for any " -gravity " setting to play with.

Labels over Multiple Lines

As you can see " label: " understands the use of ' ' as representing newlines. This means you may have to pre-process your input text to ensure that any special characters are escaped when placing the data on the command line. See Special Escape Characters in Text Arguments below for more details.

As " -gravity " also effects " label: " generation (as of IM version 6.2.6), you can use it to 'justify' multi-line labels.

One important feature of IM is that it can read the text data to use from a file. This is done by prefixing the filename with an 'at' character ' @ ', and using this as the string argument.

For example, here we create a label from my workstations 'message of the day' file.

You can also read the text for a label from the standard input pipeline. For example here I convert the output of a quote generator to a multi-line label.

Notice that the filename I used was just a ' - ' character. This means that the file is to be read from standard input. Remember you can use the ' @ filename ' to read ANY command line string arguments into IM. This includes all the other text input methods given below. However it can only be used to replace the whole string argument, not a part of a string argument.

Note also that in the above examples, an extra blank line was added to the label image. This blank line is caused by a final newline in the input text file. Unless you somehow strip the final newline from the input file (see caption: example below for method to fix this), " label: " will always have this blank line from input text files.

Most older versions of IM (before v6.2.5), do not handle multiple line labels. In these versions the lines would have been appended together to form a single, very very long line.

Vertical Labels

Note that the " sed " command adds a '@' character after every character, except at the end of the string. The " tr " then replaces the '@' characters with newlines. It also assumes the input text does not end with a newline, which would cause an extra blank space to be added at the bottom of the resulting image.

Users running linux, and thus using the GNU version of the " sed " command can remove the " tr ", and replace the ' @ ' with ' ' in the sed command, so it directly inserts the newlines between each character.

See also the special attribute Inter-Line Spacing which can be used to adjust the space between the characters.

Caption - Word Wrapped Label

The " -size " setting is not optional however and must at least specify a maximum width in pixels.

For example here is a caption of a long line that will not fit into the width specified.

The ' caption: ' image generated will also have the " caption " Image Property meta-data 'set' to the same string, allowing you to re-use that information later. All the common image file formats will save this information with the image. See Montage using Saved Meta-Data for examples.

By default the text is all left justified, however as of IM version 6.2.0, " caption: " respects " -gravity " for text justification purposes.

If you do provide a height as well as a width to the " -size " setting, then the image height will be set to that height as well. You can then also use the " -gravity " setting, to position the text vertically.

Please note however that if the text will not fit (height-wise) into the " -size " you specified with the given " -pointsize ", then the text will overflow the box. The current " -gravity " setting will naturally determine what part of the text is cut off.

For example this is exactly the same as the previous example, but with an image " -size " that is too small for the result.

Best Fit Caption

For example, here I ask ImageMagick to fill a fairly large area.

Note that the ONLY difference between the last two examples is the " -size " of the image generated. IM fitted the text and word wrapping so as to try and best fill the image size specified.

This is extremely useful for fitting an unknown bit of text into a given space, without it overflowing the area bounds. However internally it is equivalent to running caption multiple times as IM searches for the right point size to use to best fill the given space. In other words it can often be 10 times or more slower than if you supplied a specific " -pointsize " to use.

Captions with Paragraphs

You can read the text to be drawn from a file, or standard input (from a previous pipeline command), using the ' @ ' filename prefix, just as as we can with " label: ".

As you can see newlines in the input text will (as of IM v6.2.5) will be treated as paragraph separators. This includes any final newlines in the input file. Of course " label: " will not word wrap the lines, but preserve them.

If you really want a file to be treated as a single paragraph, then you will need to replace the newline characters with a space character, so your text is all on one line. For example, here we take the same text, but replace the line feeds with spaces, then replace any multiple spaces between the words, with a single space.

As you can see this works a lot better.

However often what you want is to treat a blank line as a paragraph break. That means you need to remove all newlines, except those involved with blank lines. Here is a special " sed " command to convert such text into the format needed by " caption: ". In this case the text is the first page of the " convert " manpage.

There is no 'justified' text option to caption. But the pango: text formatter (using an external library), does have that feature, and a lot more.

Text Attributes

As of IM v6.3.2 you can also use the " -stroke ", " -strokewidth ", and " -undercolor ". " label: " or " caption: ". For example here I make use of a lot of different settings to control the attributes of the IM text image rendering.

For more details on these settings see Undercolor Box below, and Stroke, StrokeWidth in the drawing section.

At this time, you can not use tiling images defined using " -tile ", " -fill ", " -background ", and " -origin ", with either " label: " or " caption: ". Only solid colors can be used. Attempting to so will just produce an undefined (black) color.

Pointsize, Density and the Actual Font Size

On the other hand, images are printed at a specific resolution (specified as 'dots per inch' (dpi) or pixels per inch (ppi)). As such an images resolution effects how other programs will size an image onto a specific media. EG: It effects the images physical size in the real world.

The resolution (density or dpi) of an image is irrelevant to the pixel size of an image, and the amount of space an image takes in memory or on disk. It is also, in general, irrelevant to most IM image operations. As such, to ImageMagick, the resolution is just a set of numbers stored with the image, and is normally ignored. The only time the resolution or density of an image becomes relevant is for fonts and for converting vector formats like postscript, pdf, MWF, to the raster image formats IM handles.

The " -density " setting tells IM how many pixels (dots) per inch (ppi) is present on the output device, which it can then use to adjust the image generation and font sizes to match.

For example by default IM works with a " -density " setting of 72 ppi, which is a typical setting for displaying images on a monitor or webpage. As a fonts size is specified in 'points' (using " -pointsize " and by definition 1 point is 1/72 inches, then a 72 point font should produce text sized to be roughly 1 inch high.

However most modern displays have a better resolution than this, typically somewhere between 90 to 120 pixels per inch (ppi). As such.

Should produce a label that is 1 inch high on a 90 dpi display. It is on my display! You can measure the height of these images on your screen, to check on your displays resolution.

As the number of pixels per inch is larger, the drawn font is also naturally larger in terms of the number of pixels in the image, and thus producing a larger image. Different image programs often have a different default density, and this may cause fonts to appear differentially when drawn by different programs, even at the same point size.

Note that " -pointsize " actually means the line separation of a font (actually its drawing area height), and does NOT refer to the actual height of the drawn letters! As such one font can appear larger or smaller than another font, at the same pointsize and density. Only the line spacing of the fonts will actually be the same, anything else is dependant on the font and the font's designer.

As such with a default " -density " of 72dpi (at which 1 point = 1 pixel) a 12 point font should have 12 pixels separation between the baselines to two lines of text.

Note that the height of a generated " label: " image is based on the images drawing area or bounding box, which is often, the fonts line spacing and pointsize. This is not always the case, as such just appending lines of text vertically is actually incorrect font handling!

Some fonts may even extend well beyond the normal line separation boundaries, extending well above or more commonly below the line spacing. This is especially true of hand script fonts.

The look of a font is also effected by the fonts " -pointsize " and " -density ".

Doubling a fonts pointsize (" -pointsize 24 ") will also produce a font that looks about the same size as one with doubled density or resolution. However because a font is designed to look a particular way, the thickness of lines in a font may not change much at a larger point size. That is the larger font size is slightly different.

But if you just double the density (" -density 144 "), a 12 point font will be drawn with its dimensions doubled, should still look like the original 12 point font, just drawn at a larger scale with better smoothing of the edges.

However at very low resolutions the physical size limitations of the pixels may also effect the look of a font. This means thin lines may be thickened at lower densities due to the large pixel size the density is defining. The relationship between 'density' and 'pointsize' is all a very complex issue, and one that only a professional font graphic designer can understand fully, and design their fonts to handle correctly.

FUTURE Example: difference between font at same 'pixel' size, but different density and point size.

Basically increasing one of these factors while decreasing the other by the same amount may not produce the same result. Particularly with regard to line thickness and overall 'style' of the font. You are better off adjusting the right factor for what you are doing. Use " -density " when scaling a font for an output device, or later resizing of the font, and use " -pointsize " for normal font size changes.

If you would like to know more about fonts, then have a look at the document TrueType Fundamentals (PDF), which I found very interesting.

Label Image Bounds

For example here are two capital letters in a ' LokiCola ' font reminiscent of a certain famous softdrink.

As you can see IM manages to contain this font in a label without cutting of the fonts leader or trailing graphics.

Before IM v6.3.2, " label: " would have chopped of the 'H' lead-in and parts of the tails from both characters, in the above example.

The reason this problem existed is because the fonts 'glyphs' or character description draw outside the fonts defined boundaries for specific letters, allowing them to overlap (generally either above or below) the other characters within the font.

This is a problem with the way the font itself is designed and defined, and was not the fault of IM, though IM now handles these odd situations in the best interests of the users. In other situations it could still be a problem, and one that can not be solved simply due to multi-line text interactions. For more information see Bounding Box Overflow examples below, for a more precise description.

Unicode or UTF8 Format Text

Now if you can type unicode characters into commands or scripts you can use them directly..

However few people have keyboards or editors properly set up to handle unicode character input. Even if you can not directly type unicode characters, one simple solution is to just 'copy-n-paste' the desired characters from some existing UTF-8 text file, or web page. I do!

If the UTF-8 text you wanting to draw has already been generated you can read it directly from a file using ' @filename '. For example here I create a Chinese label from a UTF-8 encoded Chinese text file (without a final newline in the file). env LC_CTYPE=en_AU.utf8 printf 'u6d4bu8bd5u7528u7684u6c49u5b57' -->

The font used in the above example is a special one, with the full set of Chinese Glyphs defined, such as the fedora linux fonts ' SimSun ' (or in the font file " gkai00mp.ttf "), " ZenKaiUni " (in the file " ukai.ttf ") or " ShanHeiSunUni " (in any of the files " uming.ttf " or " zysong.ttf " or " bsmi00lp.ttf ").

Note that the windows font ' Mincho ' (used in a later example) also defines many of the Chienese Glyphs but incompletely. If you use it with the above you will get some question marks for undefined glyphs.

We can also generate UTF-8 strings from unicode character codes using the 'GNU' " printf " program (on linux systems) to convert unicode numbers to the specific UTF-8 encoded string, in this case proper typeset opening and closing quotes (again no final newline in the UTF-8 input).

Here for example I generate the UTF-8 text using unicode character codes, and feed it using a command pipeline (read from 'stdin' using " @- "), rather than from an actual file.

On other systems (like Mac OSX and Windows) you can use the perl " printf " to output an UTF-8 encoded character string from unicode character codes.

For more information and to look up the unicode character codes for various languages and symbols see Unicode Character Code Charts.

Not only can unicode characters contain international characters, but with the right font you can also use special 'symbol' sets it defines. The most famous these is the 'DingBats' symbol font. This font has become so common that it is now part of the standard Unicode fontset.

For example here I extract the first 24 characters of the 'DingBats' unicode symbol area using a special " graphics_utf " shell script I wrote to generate a 'block' of unicode characters as UTF-8 text.

The question marks in the above are specific characters which were not defined by either unicode, or in the windows ' Mincho ' font. More specifically the symbol that was part of the original 'dingbat' font is present in unicode, but using another unicode character code, than the expected dingbat code. See Dingbats Unicode Specification Chart for more detail, and its referal to the correct unicode character to use for the 'missing' dingbat characters.

Rather than a question mark, many fonts would just print a box or a blank character for such undefined characters. If you see too many such characters, or missing characters in your output, you probably should be using a different font.

Other symbol sets also available as part of the enormous unicode character font include: Tolkan runic symbols, mathematical symbols, roman numerals, arrows, Braile and technical symbols. It is a large set to explore, and the " graphics_utf " shell script can help you explore it.

Here is another example of unicode characters which the Microsoft 'Mincho' font can render. In this case from the "Miscellaneous Symbols" section.

Using unicode within DOS scripts is must harder than under UNIX and LINUX. Special notes on using unicode from that environment has been provided by Wolfgang Hugemann, in Windows Character Encoding.

Symbol Fonts

The 'DingBat' font symbols started out in this way, but as mentioned above they are now part of the Unicode character set.

For example, one symbol I rather like to use comes from the font "WebDings". It is a rather nice 'curvy heart' symbol, which is replaces the normal ' Y ' character in that fonts defintion.

The important thing to remember is that all truetype fonts are actually a special type of Vector Image Format. With multiple images (one for each character) in the font. As they are vector images, it means the font should allow you 'draw' a character, shape or symbol at any just about any size (scale), using the controls provided by " -size ", " -pointsize ", and " -density ".

As you can see above, the 'curvy heart' can be 'rendered' at pretty much any size I desire.

Some fonts are very specialized. For example you can get a font file from IDAutomation called " IDAutomationHC39M.ttf " that can be used to generate barcodes. For example.

Here is some other interesting symbols I have found in various symbol fonts I have collected for one reason or another.

This is only a small sample of what is available. Huge libraries of just about every symbol, shape, or image, imaginable is available on the WWW for you to browse and download.

Remember that each drawn character has two separate parts that can be drawn: the 'filled' area (which I showed above), and the 'stroke' or outline, which can look very different to the filled area. Each of these areas can be drawn separately, or in different colors, so it may be a good idea to examine a promising symbol or shape more closely, in a number of ways. You may get a very surprising result. See Compound Fonts, Stroke for some examples of doing this.

Many creators of symbol fonts generate the shapes using a simple scanner and bitmap to vector converter, without any proper design or cleaning of the image or shape. Caution is recommended when looking at such 'scanned' fonts.

The last font shown above is one such example of a 'scanned' font, giving it a poor looking 'dotty' quality, when compared to the other more properly designed fonts.

Inter-character Kerning

Note that the actual kerning value can be a floating point value, or even a negative value.

For another example of using a negative " -kerning " value see the Joined Compound Font example.

Inter-Word Spacing

Note how you can not only increase the size of a space character between the words but also decrease the default size.

Note however that spaces will cause the words to be re-aligned to pixel boundaries (unlike Inter-character Kerning above) so the output of a label with spaces set to zero will still be different to a label that does not contain any spaces at all.

Both the Inter-character Kerning and the Inter-word Spacing will also effect the results of IM's ability to automatically fit a text string to a specific sized image.

What is happening is that by setting the " -interword-spacing " the 'space' character size no longer changes with the rest of the text size. Thus as IM trys to work out the best " -pointsize " the amount of space between each word is fixed, and thus play no part in the fitting of the text into the given fixed width. As a consequence the larger the " -interword-spacing " the smaller sized font that is needed to actually to fit the line of text into the same specified image width.

A negative value can be used, and can in fact to make words overlap, or produce unusual effects using specific characters and fonts. But make it too negative and undefined behaviours can creep in. Caution is advised if you try this.

While the above is not an example of text justification (though it looks like it), you can use these options as a starting point to providing proper text justification.

If you really need that level of text formating and justification, then you may be better off looking at other methods of generating pre-formated text or Postscript, such as the command line basied "TeX" or "LaTeX" software. Better still you could use SVG (rsvg library version), or Pango Markup Language (see below), to generate justified text.

Inter-Line Spacing

Basically it will add or subtract this many pixels between the individual lines of text. That is you can use it to expand or squash together the individual lines of text.

To make best use of this setting you need to be able to calculate the normal line spacing for a specific font. This is the actual definition of " -pointsize ", which with the current resolution or " -density " setting defines the line spaceing of a font. It does not actually define the fonts actual height or line thickness, though it effects these aspects of a particular font.

So taking a " -density " of ' 72 ' dots per inch, and knowning that by defintion there are 72 'points' per inch. you can calculate that a 12 point font will have a line spacing of 12 pixels.

With that information you can 'double-space' your 12 point text lines by using a setting of " -interline-spacing 12 ". This will add 12 extra pixels between lines.

Of course as previously seen for interword size, adding a constant number of pixels between text elements will tend to make the text smaller when automatic pointsize handling is used. That is a final image " -size " is provided without a " -pointsize " setting.

Using a negtive interline spacing can also be used as a rough and ready method of vertically 'bolding' a line, simply by repeating that line, and subtracting 1 more pixel than the baseline separation.

Of course this will not work if you really want two lines, and not just bolding text. It also works better with a fixed width font.

Special Escape Characters in Text Arguments

Also there is a special ' @ ' escape that if used at the start of a line will use the rest of the text argument as a filename to read the data from the file specified (or STDIN in ' - ' is used).

Some system (like ubuntu) disable the use of the '@' escape using security policy. Type convert -list policy to see what policies and where they are set from are present on your system.

Not only do these escape characters effect " -format ", for use by the " identify " (as well as " -identify " and the " info: "), but they also effect " label: ", and " caption: " text to image generators, and control the image meta-data setting options " -label ", " -comment ", " -caption ". And finally they are also used by " -annotate ".

While backslash ' ' is used by the " -draw " ' text ' method, the percent ' % ' escapes are not as it interferes with ImageMagick's SVG image handling. This was one of the reasons the " -annotate " operator was created for IM version 6.

The other important point about escape characters is that while they are used for command line text arguments. At no time do they apply within the data being read from a text file (usually read in using the ' @ ' escape).

This means you do not need to worry about escaping 'escapes' for text file data, but it also means you have to process file data yourself outside of IM if you need to insert information into the text.

Protecting input text file from escape handling was finalised in IM version 6.3.3.

For example here I set and the report an images 'label' and 'comment' meta-data using the two methods to set that information from a source text file. The " info.txt " file contains the string printf '@ %%wx%%h' > info.txt --> , (no final newline).

Notice that IM did not expand any of the escape character sequences that it read in using the ' @ ' file read escape. This is important as it means that any time IM reads text from a file, it will never handle any special characters that was present in that file.

Unfortunately this also includes any final newline that may be present in the file (or stream) that is being read! This can result in an extra 'blank' line in the resulting image, when the input text has a newline on the end (a very common practice). For example.

As you can see the label not only contained the input string but also an extra blank line due to the newline character that the " echo " command added on the end.

If you don't want that final newline, you will need to remove it yourself. This however could be a tricky matter, depending on where and how the text is sourced or created, and what API, you are running IM from.

The best way is to try not to generate that final newline to begin with. For example using a ' -n ' flag to " echo ". Or using something that does not add extra newlines unless you specifically request it. Or you can 'junk' that final newline using a tricky little perl one-liner.

In other API's you can look for that final newline before feeding the text to an IM command via a 'piped open'.

User defined option escapes

This is a very difficult problem, and the current solution, (for a single image) is to create a special 'user option', that is attached to an image being processed. This 'setting' can then be looked up by the " label: ", " caption: ", or " -annotate ", as a percent escape sequence, when needed.

For example here I create a completely new label image using information from the built-in rose image. That information source image is then deleted, though I could just as easily append the new label to the original image.

Yes the above is tricky, but that due to some internal IM core library limitations that are involved. See Accessing Data from other images for more details.

Escaping Escapes

Before IM version 6.3.2, you could not use a backslash to escape an initial ' @ ' to turn off the 'read from a file' function. In that case the only way to escape an initial ' @ ' was to read it from a file. This was not very practical in API's.

Here is a similar 'escape the escapes' example for " -annotate ".

Of course as previously shown, reading the text from a file (using the ' @ ' escape), will always be treated as literal, without any special meaning. This avoids the need for any pre-processing of the text, just watch out for any final newlines.

In other words when reading from a file you don't have to worry about escaping things, but can just write exactly the text you want IM to use.

Escapes on Older versions of IM

This was especially the case with regards to the percent escapes with " label: " and " caption: ", which was for a period deemed as 'non-sensible'.

For example whether you see a ' %c ' in the following label image is very version dependant (at least before IM v6.3.3).

If you see a ' abde ' (percent escape applied) or ' ab%cde ' (percent not applied) depends on exactly what version of IM you are using.

However they returned in IM v6.3.2, as a new ' %[fx. ] construct, which can reference any image, made percent escapes in text to image generators useful again. See FX Expression Escapes.

This 'what is escaped' was also a problem with regard to the handling of escapes from files. Before IM v6.3.3, the following would have produced two lines, rather than a single line.

As the results of escape handling vary greatly from version to version, in IM's older than v6.3.3, I recommend that scripts test its escape handling, adjust themselves if it is important to the programs correct working.

If anyone like to create an automatic test for IM scripts, please contribute. Or if you find such as test, please let me know.

Pango - Basic Formatted Text

Here is a simple example without using any special pango formatting.

However you should note that some of the previous Text Attributes will not work with pango, basically due to its text formatting requirements. For example while you can set a " -background " color, you can not set the default fill, or undercolor, nor the specific font to use. This is because these attributes are selectable via the Pango Markup Language instead (see below).

It is recommended that you use " -size " to define width and height limits to the output image, to which pango will automatically word wrap (or character wrap, for chinese) the input text.

And you can even have Pango 'justify' the text properly using the Define, " pango:justify ".

Note however that while text can be justified, spaces and newlines are still taken into account by the text formatted.

Also pango understands the use of TAB's (unlike label and caption).

Note that while the " printf " command above can generate tab characters, using the ' ' escape, IM does not understand the use of such an escape. It does however understand the ' ' escape sequence in strings.

However generating columns using TAB's does not work very well as you can't easily define the 'tab-stops' outside the API. As such using TAB's in this way is not recommended , except as line and paragraph indentation .

Pango Markup language

The "Pango Markup" is much like HTML, in that you use a set of " <. > " markup tags hidden in the text, and which is used to control how the text is to be formatted.

The " <span . > " tag is the main tag to use in pango mark up. It allows you to control the exact size, color, and position of the contained text. For example..

Note that most numerical values are multiplied by a factor of 1024 as such the the value of " size="49152" " in the above example, means a text pointsize of 48 points. While the negative rise (" rise="-20480" ) means to lower the text position by 20 points (or pixels at 72dpi).

But instead of specifing a pointsize for the text I can also use a special size label such as " size="x-large" ". See the source code of the next example.

Watch out for the quotes within quotes in the above. The quotes within the tags are required. However newlines and extra space within tags will take no part in the formatting of the text. As such hiding extra newlines in a markup tags, or in a markup comment can be very useful. Again see the source text of the next example.

As a final example of the power of pango formatting here I use it to format a pre-prepared file " pango_test.txt ". This contains most of the common pango markup tags you are likely to use. Compare this markup file to the resulting image below.

Pango Notes and Problems

The reason for this appears to be because pango is designed to generate separate text labels for applications. That is titles are usually generated separately to the main body of displayed text.

Pango is is not meant to be a whole scale text page formatting engine.

Fonts Pango can change fonts in the middle of rendering. It already does so easily for bold and italic text. However the font specification is from GTK, and as such uses a different system to ImageMagick in general.

You can find out more about fonts using GTK, by running the "gtk-demo" program, and double clicking "Pickers" and the "Text Widget".

Defines There are lots of special Defines that can be used to globally control various aspects of pango text formatting. These are currently listed on the Pseudo File Formats, though I have not explored all of them myself.

These are the ones I have used. -define pango:markup=false Turn off the markup language tags. Any tags are then included in the output. No pango formatting within the text is possible. this is especially useful in debugging, letting you see exactly what pango sees for its input.

-define pango:justify=true Justify text across the width of the image size. That is add extra intra-word spacing so both left and right edges of a block of text lines up.

More Information on Pango

If you do something interesting with pango, please contribute. Either mail me (Address in page footer), or post it on the IM Discussion Forum.

On systems with pango installed you can also use the command " pango-view " for generate pango formated images. However its default 'density' or 'dpi' setting is your display (IM uses 72 dpi by default) and as such may vary from host to host.

Text - Pages of Plain Text

In other words its purpose is to convert the larger preformatted text files into pages in much the same way that printers print plain text onto separate pieces of paper.

Do not confuse the " text: " file input format with the similar " txt: " input format. The latter will first attempt to read the file as a ' IM pixel enumeration ' image format.

That doesn't mean that a plain text file with a " .txt " will fail. In fact such a file will probably be converted as you would expect, as the " txt: " file format will automatically fall back to the " text: " format if an enumerated image is not recognised.

Handling text in this way however had a number of problems. First the text is drawn onto a large canvas, leaving you with the problem of removing the unused space, if such space is not wanted. The other is that lines are not 'word-wrapped' but will overflow canvas and get truncated if they are too long. And finally, for very long text files, multiple pages (images) will be generated unless some extra precautions are taken.

On the other hand, " text: " will handle just about any text file, without modifying the final image size produced, or word-wrapping very long lines. You also do not need to pre-process and special characters as you would if you used the text on the command line. Finally and more importantly if a fixed width font (like Courier) is used, files with spaced out columns of data, will still have that data in spaced out columns.

Basically " text: " will convert the input file 'AS IS'.

The input text data read from the file is essentially passed directly to the font library to draw the UTF text. As a consequence of this some control characters may be drawn using unusual 'glyphs'. This includes TAB and FORMFEED characters, which, at the time of writing, the 'freetype' library gets wrong.

If this is a concern, you may like to pre-process your text file using a filter program, such as " expand ", to convert TAB characters into the appropriate number of spaces.

When drawing text, a large 'letter' sized page is created (or the page size or type specified with a " -page " )at the current resolution (set with " -density "). By default (at 72 dpi) this will be ' 612x792 ' pixels in size, which for most purposes is very large.

For example here is a direct conversion of the plain text formatted manual for the " convert " command, into an image (it is large so to see it select the 'page' image on the right to see it).

The above manual to image conversion however generates multiple pages (images), so I Deleted the second and later ones to leave me with just the first page, instead of a GIF animation of all the pages.

I could also have appended a Read Modifier, ' [0] ' input filename, such as " text:-'[0]' ", to tell IM only to read the first image generated. Though at this time all the page selection is still handled by generating all pages and deleting the unwanted pages.

I purposely used the 'fixed-width' font ' CourierNew ' in the above so as to preserve the character spaced formatting that is present in the printed page.

Note how this output varies from that of caption: above. The overall look of this image can also be improved by using the same techniques given in Postscript section next.

If you just want to know how big say a 'A5' page is at 100 dpi, then this command generates a single blank page, of that size and returns its size in pixels. The filename, " /dev/null ", is a special UNIX file that is always empty.

Trimming Text Pages

Sounds complex? It isn't really, for example.

In the above example " -trim " is used to remove the vast amount of extra white space in the " text: " page image. This however will also remove any leading spaces in front of a line!

There is however an interesting technique which will allow you to " -trim " the image down to the size of the actual text drawn onto the page, including any leading and trailing spaces in the input. This uses a special " -undercolor " setting (looked at in detail later).

The extra space at bottom of the text is a result of the last 'newline' character in the text input, creating an extra blank line in the image. But as you can see the leading and trailing spaces of the input text was preserved.

If you use a transparent background color in the above, you can then flatten the trimmed image to convert the undrawn areas into the same color as the 'undercolor' used.

The result of the above (except for the added " -border " is actually almost exactly what IM now produces using a " label: " and reading from a ' @ ' escaped filename. However " label: " does it in a faster, and far cleaner way (via the " freetype " library rather than a postscript conversion).

You can specify a smaller " -page " size, either in pixels (see next example), or using a media page size (such as ' A5 '), using the " -density " or pixel resolution setting. You can also specify the offset at which to start drawing the text on the page, relative to the top left corner. For example.

Almost all other image creation operators use the " -page " setting to set a larger virtual 'canvas' and an 'offset' for the image on that canvas, generally for the purpose of layering images or generating animations. Because of this it is probably a good idea to reset your page setting using " +page " after any " text: " or " ps: " operation, or you may get unexpected results for any secondary images you may latter read in on the same command line.

This also is why I added a " +repage " operator to the above example otherwise the text is offset, and the image generated is also offset!

For more details of using this offset see Page Image Attributes.

Note how in the last example, any text line that is too long to fit the width of the page will overflow the page, and not be 'wrapped'. This will effectively crop and junk the end of the lines. Also if there are too many lines, then " text: " will generate multiple pages and thus multiple images , one for each page generated by the postscript translation of the text file.

If you are only interesting in the first page of text, or just want to avoid the possibility of multiple images, add a ' [0] ' to the " text: " filename, to tell IM to only read the first page generated after the text has been converted to images (see previous example).

Postscript/PDF - Pre-formatted Text and Graphics Input (or other vector image formats)

This method can be expanded to give you a very fine control of exactly how the text will look as an image. For example with the right 'text to postscript' filter, you can control the word wrapping, justifications, multiple font handling, bolding, borders, titles, filenames, dates, and other fluff in the postscript image.

However as this section is about text to image, it means you need to first convert your text to a formatted postscript file. There are lots of external programs that can be used to do this. For example " a2ps ", " enscript " or " pstext ".

Essentially you can use a word processor (like ' OpenOffice ' or ' Word ', or even ' Notepad '), OR if you want a batch text processing system you could use at ' TeX ' and ' LaTeX ' to generate your pre-formatted text (see A Complete Text Processing System below). These programs are all designed to handle the complexity of mixing plain, bold, different size, and font text together, along with word-wrapping, justification and paragraphing controls. The output from these programs can then be passed to IM to convert it to an image of the size and quality you desire.

So lets first generate some postscript (converting text from a personal fortune program).

The " perl " command in the above example adds a ' %%LanguageLevel: 3 ' line to the generated postscript file. This is needed so that the later transparent postscript options to work correctly to preserve the transparency.

The real problem here is that the " ghostscript " delegate program does not provide a single conversion method for IM to use, requiring IM to try and figure out correct call style to use to generate a correct image for the given postscript. The 'Language Level' gives IM the hint it needs to figure it out correctly.

--> Now we can convert that into an image, trimming the result (as per " text: " examples above) to remove the excess blank areas from the default page/canvas generated.

Note the use of ' [0] ' to limit the input to just the first page. If your postscript image generates multiple pages, it will still be completely processed by the " ghostscript " delegate, but IM will only read the first image returned, rather than generate multiple images, one image per page. If you postscript is very large, you may like to use other postscript utilities to limit the number of pages before processing it with IM and " ghostscript ".

As you can see postscript converted to the default " -density " of 72 dpi, often does not look as good as it should, with only a minimal amount of anti-aliasing. This is particularly the case when dealing with postscript fonts, which are not designed to work at these low-resolutions.

To improve this, you can use a Super Sampling technique to generate a better image. In this case you ask " ghostscript " draw the page at a higher resolution (or image " -density "). You can then " -resample " (a specalized resize) to bring this larger image back to a more 'normal' screen resolution density.

The value ' 196 ' is 3 times the final 72dpi, which means when " -resample " is used approximately 3×3 pixels are merged down into each pixel. This produces better anti-aliasing pixels along the edges of the text improving the overall look of the result.

Also note that using a larger density or resolution is not quite the same as just enlarging a font. The font definitions could have adjustments for handling low resolution situations. For example compare the hole in the letter ' e ' in the two images. The original version is sharper due to special handling within the font, even though over all the latter super sampled version is clearer. For more information see Resolution, Pointsize, and Actual Font Size below.

You don't have to use the values above, as sometimes slightly different value may produce a better or more desirable result. Of course having " ghostscript " generate an image 2, 3, or even 4 times larger also means IM will take 4, 9 or 16 times longer to generate the image! It will also use that much more memory and temporary disk space! But the results are generally worth it. The best idea is to just try it out for your own document, and see what gives you the best results.

Also if you need more anti-aliasing, rather than using an even larger input resolution, you could try blurring the image by a sub-pixel amount (say ' -blur 0x0.7 ') before you reduce its size. I have also sometimes found that a very small amount of unsharpening after the resize (a common photoshop technqiue), can improve the overall final result.

But I would be careful of these adjustments, as it could make things worse.


If you like to have a transparent background instead of white, you can specify a " -channel " setting of ' RGBA ', to include the alpha channel in the image. Of course you will need to use an image format that can handle semi-transparent colors.

Notice that the banner still uses an off white color for its backgrounds, rather than also being made transparent or semi-transparent. That is because the postscript generated actually draws that background, replacing the default background of the page (be it white or transparent).

Making the background transparent like this will allow you to overlay your postscript image on a specific background color.

Using a Alpha Compositing Method you can even overlay it onto a specific background image, or a tiled background.

As almost all postscript printers only can darken paper or an overhead transparency, (this includes color printers), when the above is printed the banner would be made semi-transparent automatically.

If you also want IM do the same thing, as what a printer would do, you can use a special ' Multiply ' alpha composition, to overlay the 'white background' image, onto the desired 'paper' background.

If you have a color postscript image, you also can simulate a pure black and white printer onto colored paper by using the special ' BumpMap ' compose method. This will grey-scale the source overlay image, before it uses uses multiply to composite the images together.

You can also generate the grey-scale image equivalent of an overhead transparency slide. This basically uses the opaque, white background image (from above) as a 'mask' which to set shaped transparent image using the Alpha Shape Operator

Like the " text: " converter above, the " ps: " converter also makes use of the " -page " setting to set the canvas size of the image 'media' onto which the page is drawn. Though offset supplied will be ignored. However as most postscript files define the drawing media size internally, this is usually not necessary.

Most other image creation operators use the " -page " setting to set a 'virtual canvas' and an ofset on that virtual canvas (for example to generate GIF animations). As such it is probably a good idea to reset it using " +page " after using it for a " text: " or " ps: " image read operation, otherwise you may get unexpected results with the later images.

For more details of using this offset see Page Image Attributes.

As a final practical example, have a look at my Ray Traced Tetrahedron image. Other similar images can be seen in Studies into Polyhedra.

The background page was generated from the same data used to produce the displayed 3D mathematical object. The text data was converted using " a2ps ", then IM was used to convert this to an image. Onto this image other pre-prepared line drawings of the same mathematical object was added to the page. This final image (saved in 'targa' or TGA format) was then passed to the " PovRay " ray-tracer for inclusion in the final image or ray traced scene.

Using GhostScript Directly

For example instead of running.

You can get GhostScript to do it directly.

This prevents the need for IM to generate a large temporary file (for security and pipelined image handling). As a result of this, direct use of GhostScript can save quite a lot of file handling and IO processing, and can produce a major performance boost when processing postscript and PDF files.

However " ghostscript " can not resize images, (other than adjust the output density or resolution) and will probably not be able to output the image in the image file format you require, or at the quality you want. But you can always then feed the GhostScript output to ImageMagick to finish the task.

That is especially the case if you want to super-sample the results (higher resolution input, to resized smaller output).

GhostScript can be a difficult program to figure out how to use, or fix for specific types of postscript. Cristy constantly battles with these issues on behalf of IM users, and in this he has done a super effort. Unfortunately in dealing with the many things that can (and does) happen, IM can not provide a simplified method for postscript/PDF via GhostScript.

Draw - Draw Text on Existing Canvas

However to use it we need to generate a background image of the appropriate size to draw the font, which can be tricky when drawing some unknown text. See Auto Sizing of Font Images for ways to solve this problem.

A lot of extra options, beyond the standard text options also effect how " -draw ", actually draws text on an image. Not only can you specify a " -fill " color, but you can also specify a " -undercolor ", as well as an edge or " -stroke " color, both of which are turned off by default (set to a color of ' none '.

The " -fill " color can also be replaced by a " -tile " image pattern, while the stroke edge width can be changed using " -strokewidth ". Then the relative position of the drawn text can be changed a with " -gravity " setting.

For example here I used many of the extra features I just mentioned.

As of IM version 6.2.4, the " -draw text" operation no longer understands the use of ' ' as meaning newline, or the use of percent ' % ' image information escapes. (See Drawing a Percent Bug).

These abilities, and problems, however remain available in the new IM v6 operator " -annotate ". See the Annotate Text Drawing Operator below.

All the above options can also be used within the " -draw " (MVG - Magick Vector Graphic) string. However if you set the above option within the draw argument, that option will only apply to that specific draw MVG string.

On top of this the draw MVG format can do much much more, such a text rotation and font 'decorating' and of course you can also draw various shapes like circles onto the image.

For example here we draw underlined, and rotated text, overlaid on a couple of background circles.

If you really want to make maximum use of " -draw " for creating your image, I suggest you look at the Drawing Examples Page.

Undercolor Box

The major use of using the " -undercolor " option, is as a simple and quick way to clear a 'noisy' background from around the text. For example look at Annotating on Top Images. However it is recommended you also add an extra space character at the start and end of the string being drawn in that case.

Bounding Box Overflow

A font designer can 'draw' individual characters (or 'glyphs') anywhere relative to the current text position (known as the caret). The font position does not even have to move forward, and in some international fonts could even move backward!.

The result of this freedom of design is that some 'glyphs' do not fit inside the defined drawing area which the font declares the character fits into, especially on slanted, or script-like fonts where some parts of the letters extend well outside the bounds and into the areas used by later (or previous) characters.

The worst font I have seen in this regards is the ' LokiCola ' font, which draws around half of its capital letters with long wavy tails, well beyond the bounds of the individual character cells. The font basically assumes each capital letter will be followed by 3 or more lowercase letters.

To show this I'll draw a number of the font's capital letters separately, allowing you to see just how far the letters could extend beyond the cell 'undercolor' or drawing bounds. I also use a couple of them to form the fonts name, so you can see just as they were designed to be used, and why they overflow their bounding boxes.

Also note how the ' H ' actually overflows on the left side as well as the right side of its drawing area. This can make it difficult to use at the beginning of lines.

Remember this problem is NOT a bug in IM, but caused by the interaction of the font library IM uses, and the settings within the font itself, usually on purpose by the font designer. IM just uses the results as they are programmed in the font, which does not always produce what the user intended. Caution is thus advised with unusual fonts.

Annotate - Text Drawing Operator

While the operator does make use of the " -draw " primitives, it does so in a more complex way, such as expanding special escape characters to add extra image information and even multiple lines, and applying a coordinate system transform to the drawn text to produce slants and rotations.

Because of this, the operator is now the preferred text drawing operator for all ImageMagick text drawing and image annotation, and this is now reflected in these example pages.

Here is a basic example using this operator.

One of the extra features of the " -annotate " operator is that it can rotate the X and Y axis of the drawn text completely separately to each other. This is done by providing the angle in which to rotate each axis as a 'image size' in the operators argument.

Just to show how complex a single " -annotate " operation can be, here is a boxed, stroked, and slanted image.

In this example all four annotate arguments are given. Specifically, X axis rotation, Y axis rotation, and the fonts X and Y position on the background image.

Also note that the fill pattern (set with " -tile ") is also slanted with the font. That is because it is drawn using a sheared/rotated coordinate system, which also shears and fill pattern tiled within the drawn text.

Further example of this shearing capability is the Sheared Shadow Font example. Compare that with the Slanted Font created with the equivalent " -draw " MVG string.

For a table summarizing the effects of the " -annotate " shearing operation, see Annotate Argument Usage.

For example here is some slightly rotated text .

Note that the angle given to " -annotate " must be positive for IM to understand it correctly). The exception to this is if a comma-separated 4 number form of Geometry Argument is used. For example " -annotate '-10,-10,20,90' 'Anthony' ", could have been used in the last example.

This can be used to generate angled condensed labeling. For example. You can also add other information about the current image to the Annotated string using escape characters. For example lets overwrite the built-in " rose: " image with information about the images size. To center the text on the image we use a " -gravity " setting, and turn off any and all rotations and offsets by using an " -annotate " argument of ' 0 '.

For other examples of annotating text onto a larger image in various ways (such as centered on the side, or rotated in the bottom-right corner) see Practical Text Annotation Examples.

Automatically Sized Annotated Text Canvases

Here is a typical example of the problem. When I first set up this command I set my size to the results I wanted, and at first it worked quite well. But then I got this.

What we need is to be able to use the " -annotate " operator, but with the canvas sized to fit the Annotated Text.

One solution is to use a much larger canvas, then " Trim " the background to the right size. I also added a " Border " to add a little extra space around the font and the final edge of the image, for a better look.

This method is much better than trying to make a guess at just how big your final image should be, however " Canvas Trim ", will not trim a tiled multi-colored background.

The better solution is to create the canvas using " label: ", to generate the canvas of the right size. A Draw Color Fill is then used to tile an image over the canvas (and the label text), and finally we Annotate our text using another tiling image.

Note that position of the text in a centered " label: " image may not exactly match the position of a centered " -annotate " operation. The two methods follow completely different processing algorithms, and as such may not match. Especially when unusual fonts are involved.

Auto Sized using 'Undercolor Box'

Just a word of warning, some fonts draw characters well outside the individual character drawing area. (For example see Undercolor Box above). In this case the above result will work, but may require you to use a transparent canvas, and then overlay the result over white (using an operation like " -background white -flatten " for example), to convert the unused and still transparent areas to white. However that character will likely be touching an edge of the resulting image. Basically you can't really win, in all situations, just try your best.

Coloring a Gray-scale Text Image

Here for example I use the Level by Colors Operator, " +level-color ", to globally modify the image colors so as to assign the foreground and background colors with specific values.

For example here I use Composite Masking to replace background and foreground with pattern images.

The Reverse Operator in the above is used to reorder the images, so the first image becomes the third 'masking' image of the composition. The foreground (" plasma: ") image then becomes first, and the background in the middle.

For other techniques of coloring a gray-scale image like this, see Using a Mask to Limit the Composed Area. And more generally Using Masks with Images.

For other methods of generating gradients for tiling see Gradients of Color, Sparse Points of Color, and Randomized Canvases.

Fonts

Determining Font Metrics, without using an API

It is also important to remember that most fonts are proportional fonts, meaning that each individual character will have a different width, and a different 'natural' advance of the caret (or origin). As such each specific 'string' of characters will be rendered (drawn) a different length without any real regard to the actual number of characters used in the string.

The exception to this are 'Fixed-Width' fonts, such as " Courier ", " Typewriter ", or " Terminal " fonts, in which all characters have the same width, allowing you to generate columns of text easily.

The Debugging Setting " -debug annotate " can be used to get IM to directly report a TTF font's metrics, for a specific string. For example.

As you can see you get a mixed bag of information you can use: from the declared bounds of the drawn string (which is not nessarilly the strings actual bounds), relative to the origin to the amount the 'carat' (origin) should advance before drawing the next string.

The full debug output (which is rather verbose, and not shown in the above) also reports the actual font file used (twice) so you can also use it to check that you have the right font too.

The " -debug annotate " method was added to IM v6.3.9-2

Older techniques

For example lets find out the dimensions of the ' Ravie ' font relative to a fixed baseline, at 72 point.

Here is the image we will be studying, as a reference. You don't actually need to drawn and save it as an image, as we are only extracting data, not an image. the colors of this image will be modified so we can look at the white and black parts separately using " -trim " to extract the metrics used.

For the basic basic font metrics, we first draw the font itself with a transparent color (' None '), so that we can measure find the size and location of the bounding box or drawing area of this specific character, for this font. Note that for height information you can just draw anything.

From the results above we can see that a ' Ravie ' font at 72 points, will have a total bounding box height of 74 pixels. The top of the box is 42 pixels from the top of the image, as the baseline which was positioned at a 100 pixels y coordinate, the box starts is 100 - 42 or 58 pixels above the baseline. That leaves 74 - 58 or 16 pixels for the bounding box below the baseline for the descenders.

Note that not all fonts limit their drawing to within their defined drawing bounding box! However some letters can extend far outside those boundaries. That is why the above example sets a " -fill " color of ' none '. That way ill behaved fonts will not effect the above measurements.

Also note that the distance separating lines (baselines actually) should be purely determined by the point size of the font, and has nothing to do with how the font is drawn. In out example, as the font has a point size of 72 points, and a point is defined as 1/72th of an inch, then the baselines should be 1 inch apart. With a current output resolution (density) of 72 pixels per inch, that means the baselines will be 72 pixels apart.

Interestingly enough that means that for this font, with a 74 pixel bounding box, the font has a two pixel overlap for the drawing area between the lines of properly single spaced text!

Also from the above measurements we can see that in drawing the string " A " in this font at this point size, the next character should be drawn 66 pixels to the right of the starting point (known as the caret). This is the strings 'logical' length. That is the 'caret' or start point for the next character should start at 20 + 66, or at ' +86+100 ' (the baseline does not change vertically). Be warned that some Arabic fonts can in fact draw right to left, so the 'caret' offset will be negative.

That gives use the font metrics for the character 'A' but what about physical dimensions of drawn 'A' relative to the 'caret' or start point. Well just swap the two color settings.

Height-wise the character was within its defined drawing boundaries, with its height going from 100 - 43 or 57 pixels above the baseline (hard against its bounding box) to 60 - 57 or only 3 pixels below the fonts baseline. In other words this letter does not have a 'descender' drawn in area below the baseline.

From this we can see that the 'A' draws from 3 pixels before the caret (positioned at +20, but final image is at +17), to 70 - 3 or 67 pixels after the caret position. In other words this font is slightly wider than its horizontal bonding box, when drawn.

Note that while this gives you the actual drawn string length, this is different to the caret offset needed when appending text, (which is defined by the strings bounding box, and not its drawn length). In other words text should be appended together using their bounding boxes, and not their actual drawn length size as we have do in other examples.

Of course if you get a very ill-behaved font, you may like to check how far a specific string draws beyond its bounds so that you can still provide space for it, say at the end of a line.

The dimensions extracted from a font will also vary with the current " -strokewidth " used for drawing the font. If you increase the size of the outline stroke, then the dimensions (and bounding box size) needed to draw the font is also expanded by the same amount to accommodate the thicker outline.

Dimensions also vary with the operating system, (type and version) and the version of the delegate font drawing library IM is using on that system, even when the exact same font library and IM version has not changed. Caution is recommended when different computers could be used for text drawing, as results can vary even for the same font.

For more information see the document TrueType Fundamentals (PDF). This shows that even my generalizations above may not always hold true, though is generally the case.

Note the above examples will only return dimensions in whole pixels, where all the dimensions used by fonts are floating point numbers. In fact whether a font is even drawn from a whole pixel (caret) starting point, can be application dependant, and effect the resulting look of the font.

Creating Lines of Mixed Font Styles

This is the sort of thing that programs like Word Processors, Web Browsers, Document Printers do very well, usually under user interaction, but few can do so well under program control.

One exception to this is " TeX ", and its family of programs (see A Complete Text Processing System below), so if you are serious about processing text graphically, I suggest you look at this program family.

Another alternative is to look at various document 'pretty' printing programs such as a HTML converter. You can use these to convert program generated documents into postscript which IM can then happily post-process into whatever image format or style you want.

An API solution (using the C MagickWand API interface) has been created by "El Supremo" (from the IM discussion forums) in his FontMetrics program. and here is Example Output of "FontMetrics".


Now while IM command-line is not designed for 'word processing', it does not mean you can't use it for such. It is just more difficult. Here I will give some examples of mixing text in different fonts and styles, to give people a starting point.

The simplest solution people usually think of is to just append " label: " images together.

However as you can see all the images are vertically aligned to the top of the image, and unless you use similar fonts, will not look very good.

Alternatively, you can use an append justification trick to align them along the bottom.

What this did was to add some extra padding to the top of each label, and cropping them all to the same height before appending them horizontally. After that a simple " -trim " and a " -flatten " was used to set the height of the line to the highest label, and fill in the background.

As you can see this produces a better job, but a small font tends to produce subscript like behaviour, rather than properly aligned text.

What we really need to do is align all the text strings by their 'baselines' and that is very difficult without access to more textual information. This information is easily obtainable under a program API, but much more difficult from the command line. One method is shown in the previous example section.

However it is possible to align words by their baseline without actually collecting baseline information. While " label: " text images do not provide any clue as to the images baseline, you can specifically draw images at a fixed baseline.

Without an API you also can not directly find out how long or high drawn text is, so you first need to use a canvas that is large enough to ensure that we don't loose any information about text image. Then to preserve trailing spaces and text height you also have to make good use of the (" -undercolor ") feature available to text annotation and provide a boundary for image trimming.

So lets see how you can do it from the command line.

As before the trimming of the images is done in two steps.

First draw the text on a base image which contains a vertical blue line. Thus when we trim the text, only the width of the text image will be trimmed, leaving all the words at the same baseline height.

After appending them together, we can now remove the blue construction line by making it fully-transparent. If you are generating just a black and white image, the better way would be to just extract one of the non-blue channels instead, which ensures you really do get all of the construction line. A second trim will then trim the top and bottom sections, shrinking it to the largest bounding box.

A final flatten to the same color as the as the bounding box then removes all evidence of its use in constructing the line.

As you can see all the text is now properly baseline aligned, regardless of the font or the pointsize used.

Of course in these examples I only used black on white text. Other colors can be used, as long at they don't interfere with the construction line and transparent background used for text alignment.

With this technique you can now generate mixed font text lines, and vertically append them all together into a larger document.

You can also see that doing all this is a lot of work, work that is normally hidden from the user by word processors and web browsers. If you do plan to do a lot of this sort of stuff, I do suggest you look into the alternatives I previously mentioned.

Form Filling

The fields are text width, gravity (justification), color, position x, y and the actual text to place for this field.

Now you can use a simple looped shell script to generate a text label as described by the above, assigning the appropriate text in the defined text positions in a form (background) image.

The 'form image' in this case is just a blank image, but really could be anything. I also set the background color of the labels to 'wheat' so the area filled in is visible, but you would normally set this to none.

The above does not use temporary files, but instead uses a pipeline of MIFF format images. This is an example of using a Image Streaming Format, in which individual images are simply appended together, on after the other in a file or pipeline.

This is only a starting point. The form fields can come from some definition file, while the text to fill in from a database or other data source. Other attributes can also be set such as the font to use, text rotations and so on. You could also include both width and height, or if the text should be word-wrapped using Caption should be used rather than a Label.

See also Pins in a Map for another example of this technique, much like the above.

Text Processing Alternatives

Tool used for.
ImageMagick Image batch processing and preparations
Gimp GUI image editing for one off problem fixing
LyX GUI word processing, built to generate.
LaTeX Text processor for documents, and books.
TeX Underlying Text format
(positions symbols and fonts on pages)
Metafont TeX Font generator

Basically ImageMagick can do a lot of things, that does not mean it is the best tool for those things. For larger document preparations you are better off treating it as only one part of a larger whole.

The various 'TeX' tools given above are usually a standard install for most Linux systems, and can combine text and images into an unified whole. More importantly it keeps text as text, and formats the text appropriately, as you specify, doing almost all the hard work of word and page wrapping, and arrangement with the images. But without filling a 'doc' file with useless formatting garbage. You have full control, or can leave it to make the decisions.

They provides a way of generating any type of document, from a simple page, newsletter or even a full book If you are serious about document generation, then these tools are well worth looking at and learning.


Pango (Linux and MacOSX only) also provides an alternative. It provides many text to image processing features not available in ImageMagick. For example TABs, justification, margins, headers, and so on. It even has a markup language of some kind to allow font changes in the middle of text.


Other solutions also include the many text to postscript conversion programs, such as "a2ps" which I demonstrate in generating an example postscript file in Postscript Handling above. This converts and formats may different types of text files, with word wrapping, bolding and tab control, as well as a reasonably nice header, footer, border, and multi-page options. Of course this is indirect image processing via a Postscript or PDF intermediate language.

Another is to layout the text using SVG, or the ImageMagick Drawing Command, though you will then need to deal with the layout. There are lots of tools out there to convert text into images, and most can be combined with ImageMagick to post-process the text image and merge it into your image. This lets ImageMagick get on with what it does best, image processing.


Python is considered easy to learn and run almost anywhere. It is useful for a number of applications, including education, data analytics and web development. Some of the biggest companies in the world rely on Python extensively, including Instagram and Google.

It is a dynamic, object-oriented (OO) programming language comparable to the likes of Microsoft .NET based languages or Java, as a general-purpose substrate for several software development kinds. It provides strong support for integration with several technologies and higher programming productivity across the development life cycle. It is particularly suited for large and complex projects with changing requirements.

Web development, programming languages, Software testing & others

Python is also one of the fastest-growing open-source programming languages and is used in mission-critical applications for the world’s largest stock exchange. It also forms the base for various high-end publication websites, runs on several million cell phones and is used across industries such as air traffic control, feature-length movie animation and shipbuilding.

Let’s start on a positive note and discuss the advantages of this prolific programming language.

Pros of Using Python

Following are the pros are given below.

#1. Ease of use and read

Most Python programmers would agree that Python’s biggest advantage is that it is easy to pick up. Ease of use and easy readability is more than just a convenience. It can also benefit the users of your program. Easy usability helps you think more clearly when you write programs and others who have to enhance or maintain them.

Experts and beginners can easily understand the code, and you can quickly become productive with this language since it has fewer ‘dialects’ than other popular languages like Perl. Since its source code resembles the pseudo-code, it is also simple to learn. As soon as you start learning, you can start coding effectively almost immediately.

Overall, it takes less effort to write a program in Python than it would using other languages like Java or C++. This is also rather popular among academia, resulting in a large talent pool. It is considered a very productive way of writing code, and some of this comes from its readability and simple syntax. Some come from its well-designed and rich inbuilt capabilities and standard library, and the availability of several third-party open source modules and libraries.

Since it is easy to understand, it is also easy to maintain. The language is also dynamically flexible and typed, with code that is not as verbose as other languages. But this dynamic typing could also play out as a disadvantage, which we will discuss later.

#2. Straightforward and speedy

The Python community offers fast and effective support to users, and hundreds of thousands of developers work hard to find and fix bugs and develop new patches and enhancements to the language. The also offers fast feedback in many ways. For one, programmers can skip various tasks that would have to be done in other languages. This brings down the time and cost of each program and the maintenance required for the program. It also permits fast adaptation of code. The language can be termed as ready-to-run, requiring just simple code to be executed. Playing around and testing your code becomes much simpler with the language, which also offers a bottom-up development style to easily construct your application by testing key functions in the interpreter before you start writing top-level code.

The interpreter is easily extensible, allowing you to embed C code with a simple compiled extension module. It motivates program reusability, too, with packages and modules. A number of modules are already available with the standard library, essential for Python distribution. You can share the functionality between different programs by breaking them into several modules.

The language can run on multiple systems but retains its similar interface, and its design does not change by a lot with each operating system since it is written in portable ANSI C. This means you can easily write Python on a Mac, test it on a Linux system and upload to a Windows computer.

#3. Usability with IoT

The Internet of Things or IoT has opened up huge opportunities, and it can play a key role in you utilizing these opportunities. The language is becoming a popular choice for IoT, with new platforms like the Raspberry Pi being based on it. The documentation for Raspberry P states that the language is easy to use and powerful.

#4. Asynchronous coding

It has proven to be quite effective for writing asynchronous code, which utilizes a single event loop for doing work in small units rather than writing up uses. This is because it is easier to write as well as maintain without any confusing research contention or deadlocks, or other issues. These generators are very useful for interleaving running several processing loops.

#5. A less limited programming approach

As compared to Java, it uses a much less limited multi-paradigm programming approach. For instance, you do not have to create a separate OO class for printing ‘Hello World’ in Python, but you do have to do it in Java. It is multi-paradigm and supports functional, procedural and object-oriented programming styles. In Python, anything and everything can be an object. You can write applications in the language using several programming paradigms, and you can still write crisp, clear and understandable OO code.

#6. Enterprise Application Integration

It is a great choice for a programming language that includes Enterprise Application Integration (EAI). It makes developing web development services easier, invoking CORBA or COM components and directly calling from and to Java, C++ or C code. It provides significant process control features and implements common internet data formats and protocols, processing markup languages such as XL, running from the same byte code on modern operating systems, and can be embedded as a scripting language.

#7. Its use in web development

It can be and is used extensively for web development, for purposes ranging from high-end web application development to simple CGI scripting to large-scale frameworks such as TurboGears and Django. Other examples of Python’s use in web development include the Quixote web application framework, Plone content management system and Zope application server. You can easily create your own solution based on Python’s easy-to-use and extensive standard libraries. Python provides interfaces for most databases, works well with other web development technologies and features powerful document and text processing facilities.

#8. Its use in scientific and numeric applications

You can use Python’s imaging library and MayaVi and VTK 3D visualization toolkits, and other tools like ScientificPython and Numeric Python to develop numeric and scientific applications. Many of these applications can also be supported by Enthought Python Distribution.

#9. Application scripting and software testing

Python’s strong integration with Java and C and C++ makes it very useful for application scripting. It was designed right from the beginning to be embeddable and can be a great choice for a scripting language for customizing or extending larger applications. Thanks to its strong text processing and integration capabilities, it can also be used for extensive software testing. In fact, it even comes with its very own unit testing framework. It can be used for developing high-end GUI desktop applications too. You can use open technologies to deploy your application across most operating systems. Support for other GUI frameworks such as Motif, X11, Delphi, Carbon and MFC are also available.

#10. Python’s use in prototyping and open-source advantage

Prototyping in Python is rather easy and quick, resulting in the development of the final system in several cases. Since Python is rather agile, you can easily refactor code for a rapid development from the first prototype to the final product. Python’s open-source nature is also a huge advantage. It is well-designed, scalable, portable, robust and fast due to its nature. Its syntax is easy to pick up, and it has uncluttered and well-developed advanced language features. In many ways, it exceeds the features and capabilities of other commercially available comparable solutions.

Python’s open-source license also allows unrestricted modification, redistribution and use of the language and applications based on it. The full source is available, and there are no licensing costs involved, which is a huge cost saver. Support is freely available through online resources.

#11. Server-side scripting

It is considered a strong server-side scripting language. Its code resembles pseudo-code like other scripting languages, and it hardly has any rich or complicated syntax. It has been built so that you can focus less on what command you want to use and instead focus on the business rules for your application.

#12. Portability and interactivity

Another huge benefit of Python is its portability and interactivity, making it that much easier to learn. It provides dynamic semantics and rapid prototyping capabilities. It is often considered a glue language, connecting disparate existing components. It is highly embeddable in applications, even those using other programming languages. This makes it possible for you to fix new modules to Python and extend its core vocabulary.

Cons of Using Python

As you can Python has huge benefits. But it has its fair share of limits too. Here is a look at them:

#1. Speed

Speed, or the lack of it, can be a major issue. Since it is an interpreted language, Python can be slower than other compiled languages. However, this brings us back to the separation of language from runtime. Some benchmarks of Python run faster than the equivalent of C or other coding languages. Python’s slow speed of execution has been criticized in the past, but it has been addressed to some extent with optimized packages in the past few years. Still, Python can be slower in some ways to languages like C++ and C and newer ones like Go.

#2. Lack of mobile computing and browsers

It is strong in desktop and server platforms but weak in mobile platforms. There have only been a handful of smartphone apps developed using Python, and the language is rarely seen in the client-side of web development applications.

The language is also not present in web development browsers. The major reason for this is that it is difficult to secure. There is still a lack of a good secure sandbox for the language, and some programmers consider it difficult to impossible for the standard implementation, Python.

#3. Design restrictions

Even the biggest fans of Python would agree to certain design restrictions in the language because it is dynamically typed. This requires more testing and errors to turn up only during runtime. The language’s global interpreter lock means that just one thread can access Python internals at any time.

#4. Package maturity and availability

There is a lack of Python counterparts for several Matlab toolboxes. Many of these toolboxes, modules and packages are not yet mature in terms of development and are poorly supported and documented. This is to be expected, given that it is largely driven by a community of volunteers who may not have time for documenting and supporting every module. If you plan on getting a module or package for Python, it is always a good idea to see if the module is being actively maintained before you develop an application dependent on it. Otherwise, you will have to develop your own patches and workarounds for the code.

We discussed Python’s use in engineering and scientific work briefly. Among modules for such work, matplotlib, SciPy, and NumPy are among the most important. While matplotlib and NumPy are well-documented, SciPy can behave unclear or missing documentation. For instance, scipy.interpolate.LSQUnivariateSpline is used to add a smoothing split for the data, but the documentation does not explain the meaning of the coefficients that the method returns. This can be problematic since the method returns fewer than expected coefficients.

#5. Problems in matplotlib

There are also certain challenges in the matplotlib, which is quite a capable non-interactive plotting package. For one, there is a lack of uniformity in interfaces for various methods and functions. As an example, when you generate a text box with the pyplot.annotate function or the axes object’s annotated method you can use the xycoords keyword to specify if the text location is specified as data coordinates, figure fractional coordinates or axes fractional coordinates. But this keyword is missing with the pyplot.text function and only data coordinates can be used to specify the text location, which is generally not what programmers want.

Recommended Articles

This has been a guide to the Benefits and Limitations of Using Python. Here we have discussed the basic concept, with Benefits and Limitations in a descriptive manner. You may look at the following articles to learn more –


4 Answers 4

Copying my answer from SO:

You can use pandas vectorized string methods to do your processing and it also removes the for loop for more efficient pandas operations, this should give you some speed.

Also I've changed your regex to [^a-zA-Zs] so that it does not match the space character.

You can replace all those steps with a single list comprehension which will give you a bit more speed. This runs around 30-40% quicker:

I can't comment because low rep but I just wanted to add a quick note. It's the same comment i made on your post on StackOverflow before you moved your post.

If you use a Deque instead of a list for cleaned_tweets, and you insert in front of the list instead of appending, do you gain performance?

I believe it would speed this part cleaned_tweets.append(cleaned_tweet) .

Edit: For the preprocess, in fact I thought about something. Did you try passing the stopwords set as a parameter instead of creating it each time for every tweet? If the stopwords set is big, could help a bit. It also make your preprocess function a bit more generic.


7.5. Building the documentation¶

The toolset used to build the docs is written in Python and is called Sphinx. Sphinx is maintained separately and is not included in this tree. Also needed are blurb, a tool to create Misc/NEWS on demand and python-docs-theme, the Sphinx theme for the Python documentation.

To build the documentation, follow the instructions from one of the sections below. You can view the documentation after building the HTML by pointing a browser at the file Doc/build/html/index.html .

You are expected to have installed the latest stable version of Sphinx and blurb on your system or in a virtualenv (which can be created using make venv ), so that the Makefile can find the sphinx-build command. You can also specify the location of sphinx-build with the SPHINXBUILD make variable.

7.5.1. Using make / make.bat¶

On Unix, run the following from the root of your repository clone to build the output as HTML:

or alternatively make -C Doc/ venv html .

You can also use make help to see a list of targets supported by make. Note that make check is automatically run when you submit a pull request , so you should make sure that it runs without errors.

On Windows, a make.bat batchfile tries to emulate make as closely as possible, but the venv target is not implemented, so you will probably want to make sure you are working in a virtual environment before proceeding, otherwise all dependencies will be automatically installed on your system.

When ready, run the following from the root of your repository clone to build the output as HTML:

You can also use make help to see a list of targets supported by make.bat .

See also Doc/README.rst for more information.

7.5.2. Using sphinx-build¶

Sometimes we directly want to execute the sphinx-build tool instead of through make (although the latter is still the preferred way). In this case, you can use the following command line from the Doc directory (make sure to install Sphinx, blurb and python-docs-theme packages from PyPI):

where <builder> is one of html, text, latex, or htmlhelp (for explanations see the make targets above).


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