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9.1: Introduction to Landscapes - Geosciences

9.1: Introduction to Landscapes - Geosciences


9.1: Introduction to Landscapes - Geosciences

9.1: Introduction to Landscapes - Geosciences

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Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.


9.1: Introduction to Landscapes - Geosciences

All articles published by MDPI are made immediately available worldwide under an open access license. No special permission is required to reuse all or part of the article published by MDPI, including figures and tables. For articles published under an open access Creative Common CC BY license, any part of the article may be reused without permission provided that the original article is clearly cited.

Feature Papers represent the most advanced research with significant potential for high impact in the field. Feature Papers are submitted upon individual invitation or recommendation by the scientific editors and undergo peer review prior to publication.

The Feature Paper can be either an original research article, a substantial novel research study that often involves several techniques or approaches, or a comprehensive review paper with concise and precise updates on the latest progress in the field that systematically reviews the most exciting advances in scientific literature. This type of paper provides an outlook on future directions of research or possible applications.

Editor’s Choice articles are based on recommendations by the scientific editors of MDPI journals from around the world. Editors select a small number of articles recently published in the journal that they believe will be particularly interesting to authors, or important in this field. The aim is to provide a snapshot of some of the most exciting work published in the various research areas of the journal.


Acknowledgments

This laboratory manual would not have been possible were it not for the work of Steven Earle, whose open textbook “Physical Geology – 2nd Edition” was the basis for this adaptation. Steven is thanked tremendously for his contribution to open educational resources in the geosciences in Western Canada. I thank Geological Technician Candace Toner for her assistance in organizing samples and materials from the Mount Royal University collection, and for her support. Thanks also to the Mount Royal University Library staff, particularly Cari Merkley for her excellent guidance and devotion to this project, and also to Subject Librarian Brian Jackson. Matt Laidlow is thanked for designing the cover of this manual. I also thank Michelle Brailey at Open Education Alberta for her support.

About the Author

Siobhan McGoldrick earned a MSc in geology from the University of Victoria following the completion of a BSc with First Class Honours in geology from Dalhousie University. She has worked with territorial and federal government geological surveys, as well as in the mining industry. Siobhan taught a wide range of geology courses at Yukon University and Mount Royal University before accepting her current position as a Senior Laboratory Instructor in the School of Earth and Ocean Sciences at the University of Victoria.


Landscape

A landscape is part of the Earths surface that can be viewed at one time from one place. It consists of the geographic features that mark, or are characteristic of, a particular area.

The term comes from the Dutch word landschap, the name given to paintings of the countryside. Geographers have borrowed the word from artists. Although landscape paintings have existed since ancient Roman times (landscape frescoes are present in the ruins of Pompeii), they were reborn during the Renaissance in Northern Europe. Painters ignored people or scenes in landscape art, and made the land itself the subject of paintings. Famous Dutch landscape painters include Jacob van Ruisdael and Vincent van Gogh.

An artist paints a landscape a geographer studies it. Some geographers, such as Otto Schluter, actually define geography as landscape science. Schluter was the first scientist to write specifically of natural landscapes and cultural landscapes.

A natural landscape is made up of a collection of landforms, such as mountains, hills, plains, and plateaus. Lakes, streams, soils (such as sand or clay), and natural vegetation are other features of natural landscapes. A desert landscape, for instance, usually indicates sandy soil and few deciduous trees. Even desert landscapes can vary: The hilly sand dunes of the Sahara Desert landscape are very different from the cactus-dotted landscape of the Mojave Desert of the American Southwest, for instance.

A landscape that people have modified is called a cultural landscape. People and the plants they grow, the animals they care for, and the structures they build make up cultural landscapes. Such landscapes can vary greatly. They can be as different as a vast cattle ranch in Argentina or the urban landscape of Tokyo, Japan.

Since 1992, the United Nations has recognized significant interactions between people and the natural landscape as official cultural landscapes. The international organization protects these sites from destruction, and identifies them as tourist destinations.

The World Heritage Committee of UNESCO (the United Nations Economic, Social, and Cultural Organization) defines a cultural landscape in three ways.

The first is a clearly defined landscape designed and created intentionally by man. The Archaeological Landscape of the First Coffee Plantations in the South-East of Cuba, near Santiago, Cuba, is an example of this type of cultural landscape.

The second type of cultural landscape is an organically evolved landscape. An organically evolved landscape is one where the spiritual, economic, and cultural significance of an area developed along with its physical characteristics. The Orkhon Valley Cultural Landscape, along the banks of the Orkhon River in central Mongolia, is an example of an organically evolved landscape. The Orkhon Valley has been used by Mongolian nomads since the 8th century as pastureland for their horses and other animals. Mongolian herders still use the rich river valley for pastureland today.

The last type of cultural landscape is an associative cultural landscape. An associative landscape is much like an organically evolved landscape, except physical evidence of historical human use of the site may be missing. Its significance is an association with spiritual, economic, or cultural features of a people. Tongariro National Park in New Zealand is an associative cultural landscape for the Maori people. The mountains in the park symbolize the link between the Maori and the physical environment.

People and the Natural Landscape

The growth of technology has increased our ability to change a natural landscape. An example of human impact on landscape can be seen along the coastline of the Netherlands. Water from the North Sea was pumped out of certain areas, uncovering the fertile soil below. Dikes and dams were built to keep water from these areas, now used for farming and other purposes.

Dams can change a natural landscape by flooding it. The Three Gorges Dam on the Yangtze River, in Yichang, China, is the worlds largest electric power plant. The Three Gorges Dam project has displaced more than 1.2 million people and permanently altered the flow of the Yangtze River, changing both the physical and cultural landscape of the region.

Many human activities increase the rate at which natural processes, such as weathering and erosion, shape the landscape. The cutting of forests exposes more soil to wind and water erosion. Pollution such as acid rain often speeds up the weathering, or breakdown, of the Earths rocky surface.

By studying natural and cultural landscapes, geographers learn how peoples activities affect the land. Their studies may suggest ways that will help us protect the delicate balance of Earths ecosystems.

Photograph by Mark Makowski, MyShot

Landscape Architecture
Landscape architecture is the study of planning and altering features of a natural landscape. This often takes the form of public parks and gardens. Central Park, the enormous public park in New York City, is often cited as an ideal example of urban landscape architecture. Central Park was designed by American landscape architect Frederick Law Olmstead.

precipitation with high levels of nitric and sulfuric acids. Acid rain can be manmade or occur naturally.


77 9.1 DEVELOPMENT AND GEOGRAPHY: AN INTRODUCTION

If you could choose anywhere on the planet, where would you like to live? Would you choose a place with mountains or with beaches? A place with high taxes or few regulations? Do you love your community/state/country? Could you make more money somewhere else or might you be happier with warmer/colder weather? Do you think that you are able to realize your full personal potential in the place where you live now? Why or why not? Your answers might vary greatly from other people around the world based upon what language you speak, your religious preferences, your cultural framework, and your own persona values. Nonetheless, there are certain indicators that geographers can use to categorize places according to how developed they are in terms of technology, infrastructure, wealth, and opportunity. As you might guess, the differences between places can be quite stark, but it’s important to understand the dynamics and geography of the patterns and processes associated with income, well-being, and opportunity. This chapter explains how those distinctions are made and how they vary across time and place using the concept of development (the processes related to improving people’s lives through access to resources, technology, education, wealth, opportunity, and choice).
Which places on earth are the most developed? There is no simple answer to this question. San Francisco is often voted as the most beautiful city in the U.S. but the cost of living makes this place unaffordable for all but the wealthiest of residents. Ancient cities like Jerusalem, Athens, and Baghdad contain amazing architecture and the roots of western civilization, but streets also tend to be narrow and housing crowded. China has experienced the fastest economic growth of any other country in the past 30 years, but it is accompanied by catastrophic levels of air pollution, poor working conditions, and severe limits on personal liberty. Within the United States, people in Colorado tend to be the healthiest while those in Utah have the largest houses and people in Texas are the most loyal to their home state. There are multiple ways to measure development, and geographers spend a great deal of time and effort studying, measuring, and quantifying the differences and commonalities.
A few general truths about development and wealth in our 21st century world can simplify the complexity:

  1. The world continues to be divided into the Global North and Global South by the Brandt Line (See Figure 9.1). Levels of wealth, well- being, access to technology, and health tend to be higher in northern countries than in southern ones. The line is problematic because it over-generalizes, but it remains a meaningful starting point to understanding development from a global scale.
  2. The majority of people living in the 21st century have a higher standard of living, earn more money, are healthier, and live longer than was the case for people 50 years ago.
  3. In spite of #2, the wealth disparity between those at the bottom and those at the top remains greater than ever before. According to Credit Suisse’s global wealth report, the globe’s richest 1% (of people) control more than half of the world’s wealth, up from 42.5% in 2008.


Figure 9.1 | The Global North as defined by the Brandt Line in 1980
Author | User “Jovan.gec”
Source | Wikimedia Commons
License | CC BY SA 4.0


Key Features

  • Geomorphology has advanced greatly in the last 10 years to become a very interdisciplinary field. Undergraduate students looking for term paper topics, to graduate students starting a literature review for their thesis work, and professionals seeking a concise summary of a particular topic will find the answers they need in this broad reference work which has been designed and written to accommodate their diverse backgrounds and levels of understanding
  • Editor-in-Chief, Prof. J. F. Shroder of the University of Nebraska at Omaha, is past president of the QG&G section of the Geological Society of America and present Trustee of the GSA Foundation, while being well respected in the geomorphology research community and having won numerous awards in the field. A host of noted international geomorphologists have contributed state-of-the-art chapters to the work. Readers can be guaranteed that every chapter in this extensive work has been critically reviewed for consistency and accuracy by the World expert Volume Editors and by the Editor-in-Chief himself
  • No other reference work exists in the area of Geomorphology that offers the breadth and depth of information contained in this 14-volume masterpiece. From the foundations and history of geomorphology through to geomorphological innovations and computer modelling, and the past and future states of landform science, no "stone" has been left unturned!

Curriculum Content

Overview

  • Overview of the distribution of areas of upland, lowland and glaciated landscapes.
  • Overview of the distinctive characteristics of these landscapes including their geology, climate and human activity.
  • The definitions of the main geomorphic processes including types of weathering (mechanical, chemical, biological), mass movement (sliding, slumping), erosion (abrasion, hydraulic action, attrition, solution), transport (traction, saltation, suspension, solution) and deposition.
  • The formation of river landforms (waterfall, gorge, V-shaped valley, floodplain, levee, meander, oxbow lake).
  • The formation of coastal landforms (headland, bay, cave, arch, stack, beach, spit).
  • Two case studies, one UK river basin and one UK coastal landscape, to cover:
    - the geomorphic processes operating at different scales and how they are influenced by geology and climate
    - landforms and features associated with your case study
    - how human activity, including management, works in combination with geomorphic processes to impact the landscape.

California Cultural Landscapes

California Cultural Landscapes utilizes a broad overview approach in its examination of both temporal and spatial changes over the rich history of the state of California, taking into consideration the interaction of cultural groups. California’s diversity is tied into all aspects of the text: the natural resources, cultural identity, economics, physical setting, human behavior, and politics. Incorporating geographical methods to provide students with the opportunity to develop an understanding of cultural and social institutions is the powerful approach used in each chapter.

The second edition further clarifies California geography and its impact upon the developing Golden State. This is accomplished through expanded maps, charts and graphics and California in Focus sections highlighting specific places and their function. In addition, the final two chapters have been fully revised to emphasize California in the twentieth and twenty-first centuries focusing on the rise of a multiethnic, multicultural society strongly controlled by geography, with specifics addressing the pressures of immigration, economy, and changing patterns of California settlement.


California Cultural Landscapes is designed to help students with the following student learning objectives:

  • The physical processes that shape the patterns on California’s surface
  • How these physical processes affect human cultures
  • How various cultures have modified the physical environment
  • The patterns of human migration and settlement through-out the region
  • The role of interethnic relations in shaping these migrations and settlement patterns

This textbook comes with a full color student California Atlas and a companion website that is integrated within the text for increased comprehension and exploration.

UNDERSTANDING THE CALIFORNIA LANDSCAPE: ELEMENTS OF GEOGRAPHY
Key Terms
Introduction

1.1 Five Themes of Geographical Science

1.2 Culture and Cultural Landscapes: Basic Themes

1.3 California Geography: Basic Themes to Explore

GEOLOGICAL HISTORY AND LANDFORMS
Key Terms
Introduction

2.1 Basic Geology: The Building Blocks

2.3 California's Brief Geologic History

2.4 Geologic Natural Hazards: Living on Shaky Ground

2.5 Natural Landform Regions
Geomorphologically-based Landscapes

CALIFORNIA CLIMATE: SCALES AND GENERAL CONTROLS
Key Terms
Introduction

3.2 Regional Scale Controls-Influence of Topography

3.4 Precipitation and Temperature: Spatial and Seasonal Patterns

3.5 Climatic Variation by Landform Region

CALIFORNIA FLORA AND FAUNA: DIVERSITY, HAZARDS AND CONSERVATION
Key Terms
Introduction

4.1 Bioregions of California

4.2 Determinates of Vegetation Patterns

4.3 Plant Communities-General Summary

4.6 California Animal Diversity

4. 7 Endangered Species and Conservation

CALIFORNIA NATIVE AMERICAN LANDSCAPES
Key Terms
Introduction

5.1 Pre-contact California: California's First Peoples

5.2 California Native American ''Tribes," Tribelets and Cultural Areas

5.3 Ecological Impacts of Spanish Contact

SPANISH EXPLORATION AND SETTLEMENT PATTERN IN ALTA CALIFORNIA

6.1 Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of Queen Califia! .
Or Maybe Not . . .

6.2 Spanish Settlement Pattern

6.3 Postcards from a Decaying Empire

MEXICAN RANCHO ERA: SETTLEMENT AND DEVELOPMENT BY "LOS CALIFORNIOS"
Key Terms
Introduction

7.1 Trade and Economic Growth

7.2 Mexican Ranchos and Mission Secularization

7.3 A Rigid Cultural and Economic Landscape in a Mixed Blood Land

GOLD RUSH: THE U.S. TAKES OVER-THE WORLD'S CULTURES MOVE INTO
NORTHERN CALIFORNIA

Key Terms
Introduction

8.1 Bear Flaggers, the Texas Game and a Game Changing Character John Fremont

8.2 Before the Gold Rush-California Before the Dawn


8.3 The Rush Is On: California the Distant Outpost

8.4 1849ers-The Argonauts and Rapid Growth in Northern California

8.5 California Life in the 1850s

8.6 U.S. Western Settlement Procedures-Homesteadin'

8. 7 Industrialization of Mining: Evolution of California Mining

8.8 Gold vs. Golden Grain: The Downfall of California Gold Mining

THE BEGINNINGS OF MODERN CALIFORNIA AND THE RISE
OF SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA

Key Terms
Introduction

9.1 Early Transportation and Communication

9.2 Search for the Ideal Landscape

9.3 Southern California Development: 1880-1900-Development Of the Myth

9.4 The Progressive Era: Arts and Crafts Movement in Southern California

9.5 A Development Pattern Snapshot of California: 1880-1930

CALIFORNIA AGRICULTURE AND IRRIGATION AGRI-"CULTURES"
Key Terms
Introduction

10.1 California Agriculture and Reclamation

10.2 Do You Know What We Grow? California Agriculture and Cuisine

10.3 Irrigation Agri-"Cultures:" Chinese, Japanese, Filipinos, Indian Punjabis, and Mexicans

10.4 Factories in the Fields: Great Depression-Dust Bowl-Okies

URBAN-RURAL CALIFORNIA: WATER, LAND AND DESIGN
Key Terms
Introduction

11.1 Urban Water Imperialism: Stories from the South and North

11.2 Water Projects: Colorado River, the Central Valley Project and the State Water Project

11.3 California's Perennial Water Woes: What's Next for the Dry State?

THE RISE OF THE MODERN CALIFORNIA LANDSCAPE
Key Terms
Introduction

12.1 World War IT: Industry, Infrastructure, and Immigration

12.2 Modem Cultural Conflict and Migration

12.3 Housing: Suburbanization-The Rise of the Tract Home

12.4 California's Era of Expanding the Mind and Resdess Youth Energy

CALIFORNIA: PARADISE OR GRITTY REALITY?
Key Terms
Introduction


9.1 Introduction

Two sets are named disjoint sets if they have no elements in common. A Disjoint-Sets (or Union-Find) data structure keeps track of a fixed number of elements partitioned into a number of disjoint sets. The data structure has two operations:

  1. connect(x, y) : connect x and y . Also known as union
  2. isConnected(x, y) : returns true if x and y are connected (i.e. part of the same set).

A Disjoint Sets data structure has a fixed number of elements that each start out in their own subset. By calling connect(x, y) for some elements x and y , we merge subsets together.

For example, say we have four elements which we&aposll call A, B, C, D. To start off, each element is in its own set:

Note that the subsets A and B were merged. Let&aposs check the output some isConnected calls:

We find the set A is part of and merge it with the set D is part of, creating one big A, B, D set. C is left alone.
isConnected(A, D) -> true
isConnected(A, C) -> false

With this intuition in mind, let&aposs formally define what our DisjointSets interface looks like. As a reminder, an interface determines what behaviors a data structure should have (but not how to accomplish it). For now, we&aposll only deal with sets of non-negative integers. This is not a limitation because in production we can assign integer values to anything we would like to represent.

In addition to learning about how to implement a fascinating data structure, this chapter will be a chance to see how an implementation of a data structure evolves. We will discuss four iterations of a Disjoint Sets design before being satisfied: Quick Find → Quick Union → Weighted Quick Union (WQU) → WQU with Path Compression. We will see how design decisions greatly affect asymptotic runtime and code complexity.


Landscape Architecture and Landscape Architects

Landscape architecture is a discipline that focuses on intervention through the activities of planning, design, and management. Also, it is concerned with the art and science that underpins all activities. All these activities are united in the concept of landscape, which is defined in various ways. However, it is generally understood to mean the outdoor environments and relationships between people and places. Landscape architecture is concerned with landscapes of all types both urban and rural, and at all scales from the smallest open space to the whole region.

As a result, people enjoy attractively designed gardens, public parks, playgrounds, residential areas, college campuses, shopping centers, golf courses, and parkways. Landscape architects design these areas so that they are not only functional but also beautiful and harmonious with the natural environment. They plan the location of buildings, roads, and walkways, as well as the arrangement of flowers, shrubs, and trees.

Some landscape architects work on a variety of types of projects. Others specialize in a particular area, such as street and highway beautification, waterfront improvement projects, parks, and so on. Others work in regional and resource management, feasibility, environmental impact, and cost studies or site construction. Increasingly, landscape architects work in environmental remediation such as preservation and restoration of wetlands or abatement of stormwater runoff in new developments. Historic landscape preservation and restoration is another area where landscape architects increasingly play a role.

Landscape in highways (Florida)


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